Ontario: Trucking Company Fined $250,000 over hazmat incident

Titanium Trucking Services Inc., headquartered in Ontario, was recently convicted of one violation under the Ontario Environmental Protection Act and was fined $250,000 plus a victim fine surcharge of $62,500 and was given 24 months to pay the fine. Luckily, no one was h The fine was the result of a hazmat incident in which a fluorosilicic acid spilled from a tanker truck into the natural environment, which caused adverse effects. No one can predict anything like this to happen, which is why it is important to always stay focused on the road no matter what vehicle you drive. Luckily no one was hurt in this collision. Saying this though, if you have been involved in a trucking accident and were not sure what to do next, getting some assistance from a personal injury lawyer springfield il could be the answer you need that can help you get your life back on track after this incident. There’s nothing wrong in asking for help.

Fluorosilicic acid is corrosive and causes burns. It decomposes when heated, with possible emanation of toxic hydrofluoric acid vapours. It is used in fluoridating water and in aluminum production. In the aquatic environment, an accidental spillage of fluorosilic acid would suddenly reduce pH level due to the product’s acidic properties.

At the time of the offence, Titanium Trucking Services Inc., which is located in Bolton (just northwest of Toronto) had a contract with a Burlington, Ontario area chemical company to provide drivers and vehicles on a dedicated basis for chemical product transportation.

In January 2017, the Burlington area chemical company placed an order for 81,000 kg of 37-42% fluorosilicic acid, which was required for pickup in Montreal for transport to Burlington. Fluorosilicic acid is a corrosive liquid, classified as a dangerous good.

On the date of the planned chemical pick-up, Environment Canada had issued weather advisories relating to a major winter storm and the public was instructed to consider postponing non-essential travel.

The chemical pick-up occurred as planned on March 14, 2017, and within four hours after leaving Montreal, the truck and the driver were involved in a multi-vehicle collision while traveling westbound on Highway 401. As a result of the collision 15 totes of fluorosilicic acid ejected through the front wall of the trailer and also came to rest in the roadside ditch.

Eight of the totes of acid that ejected from the trailer were punctured and spilled approximately 8,000 litres of acid into the ditch and onto the truck cab, dousing the driver, which eventually resulted in his death later in hospital.

March 14, 2017 incident on Highway 401 near Mallorytown. Several first responders were exposed and needed to be decontaminated. (XBR Traffic)

The acid discharge caused further adverse effects. a total of 13 First responders and another sixteen members of the public had to be decontaminated, the 401 highway was closed in both directions, and the OPP officer who initially attempted to extract the truck driver from the cab on scene experienced significant health effects. In addition, adverse impacts to the roadside soil ecosystem occurred.

HAZMAT Labels Market: global industry analysis by 2028

Future Markets Inc. recently published a research report on the Hazmat Labels Market. The report, entitled Global HAZMAT Labels Market: Overview – HAZMAT Labels, provides an overview of the market and predicts the growth of the industry.

The report is a compilation of first-hand information, qualitative assessment by industry analysts, inputs from industry experts and industry participants across the value chain. The report provides in-depth analysis of parent market trends, macroeconomic indicators and governing factors along with market attractiveness as per segments. The report also maps the qualitative impact of various market factors on market segments and geographies.

Regional analysis includes – North America, Latin America, Eastern Europe, Asia Pacific excluding Japan (APEJ), Middle East & Africa (MEA), and Japan.

Report Highlights include a detailed overview of the following:

  • market, changing market dynamics in the industry;
  • In-depth market segmentation;
  • Historical, current, and projected market size regarding volume and value;
  • Recent industry trends and developments;
  • Competitive landscape;
  • Strategies for key players and products offered’
  • Potential and niche segments; and
  • Geographical regions exhibiting promising growth

Hazmat Labels – Requirements

Hazmat labels must have excellent durability and cannot be impaired by other labels, markings & attachments. HAZMAT labels are categorized into nine classes for different purposes such as explosives, flammable gases, flammable liquids, inhalation hazards, organic peroxides etc. HAZMAT Labels for each class have a specific size & color. Most of the HAZMAT labels have contrasting background & a dotted line border. HAZMAT labels have text & symbols either in white or black.

It is important to choose the correct HAZMAT labels for shipments, as labelling a material incorrectly can result in costly shipping delays, injuries & fines. HAZMAT labels must be printed or attached to any one side of product offered for transport. It is mandatory for HAZMAT labels to be attached alongside UN numbers.

Transport Canada and the US Department of Transportation (DOT) has developed certain specifications for labels, markings and placards that must be prominently displayed on each package or container, including transport vehicles in order to safeguard health, safety, and property. The global market of HAZMAT labels is anticipated to grow rapidly during the forecast period, due to growing demand from chemical, pharmaceutical and various other end use industries.

Stringent labeling regulations by governments regarding the transportation of hazardous material accelerates market growth of HAZMAT labels, globally. Rising popularity of interactive packaging where end users can directly track the packaging using HAZMAT labels with technologies such as
radio-frequency identification (RFID) is considered a new opportunity for growth of the HAZMAT labels market.

Global HAZMAT Labels Market: Segmentation

On the basis of material, global HAZMAT labels market has been segmented as: Paper, Plastic ( Polyolefin, Vinyl, Others ). On the basis of product type, global HAZMAT labels market has been segmented as: DOT HAZMAT labels and U.S. EPA HAZMAT labels. On the basis of end use, global HAZMAT labels market has been segmented as: Pharmaceutical, Electrical & Electronics, Chemical and Petrochemicals, and Agriculture & Allied Industries.

Geographic Market

The global HAZMAT labels market has been segmented based on the region like North America, Latin America, Western Europe, Eastern Europe, MEA, APEJ, and Japan. Asia Pacific and MEA. U.S. has strong market in HAZMAT labels accounting for highest refineries & chemical producing nation in the world. The U.S. accounts for the largest share in HAZMAT labels market, owing to a large petrochemical industry. MEA region and other Asia Pacific countries such as China, India etc. are expected to witness moderate growth in the HAZMAT labels market, during the forecast period.

Key Players

Some of the key players in the HAZMAT labels market are as follows: Emedco Inc., J.Keller & Associates Inc., Brimar Industries, Inc., Air Sea Containers, Inc., National Marker Company, Labelmaster Services Inc., BASCO, Inc., LPS Industries, LLC.;

Many local and unrecognized players are expected to contribute to the global HAZMAT labels market during forecast period.

Key Developments

Some of the key developments in the HAZMAT labels market are as follows:

  • HSE Inc. has introduced HAZMAT labels with pictograms alert in order to describe presence of a hazardous chemical.
  • In February 2018, Labelmaster Services Inc. announced that it has been named the exclusive label manufacturer and distributor for CHEMTREC.

U.S. NTSB updates list of most wanted safety improvements

The United States National Transportation Safety Board (U.S. NTSB) recently unveiled its list of most wanted safety improvements for the transportation sector in 2019-2020.

Launched in 1990, the most wanted list serves as a primary advocacy tool to help save lives, prevent injuries and reduce property damage resulting from transportation accidents, U.S. NTSB officials said in a press release. In 2017, the U.S. NTSB changed it from an annual to biennial list to provide list developers and recipients more time to implement recommendations, some of which are longstanding safety issues the board believes continue to threaten the traveling public.

The 10 items on the 2019-20 list are:
• eliminate distractions;
• end alcohol and other drug impairment;
• ensure the safe shipment of hazardous materials;
• fully implement positive train control (PTC);
• implement a comprehensive strategy to reduce speeding-related crashes;
• improve the safety of certain aircraft flight operations;
• increase the implementation of collision avoidance systems in new highway vehicles;
• reduce fatigue-related accidents;
• screen for and treat obstructive sleep apnea; and
• strengthen occupant protection.

Hazmat Safety

In terms of hazmat safety, the NTSB is calling on the rail industry to meet existing federal deadlines for replacing or retrofitting tank cars. More than 2 million miles of pipeline deliver 24 percent of the natural gas and 39 percent of the total oil consumed in the United States, yet only 16 percent of U.S. rail tank cars carrying flammable liquids meet the improved safety specifications for DOT-117/DOT-117R cars. Failure to meet safety standards by or ahead of deadlines places communities near tracks at unacceptable risks, board members believe.

The U.S. NTSB investigations have shown that moving ethanol by rail and crude oil by pipeline can be unnecessarily hazardous. These essential commodities must be conveyed in a manner that ensures the safety of those who are transporting it as well as those in the communities it passes through.

There are 267 open safety recommendations associated with the current most wanted list and the board is focused on implementing 46 of them within the next two years, U.S. NTSB officials said. The majority of the recommendations — roughly two-thirds — seek critical safety improvements by means other than regulation, they said.

“We at the NTSB can speak on these issues. We can testify by invitation to legislatures and to Congress, but we have no power of our own to act,” said NTSB Chairman Robert Sumwalt. “We are counting on industry, advocates and government to act on our recommendations.”

Top Environmental Clean Up Projects throughout Canada

by David Nguyen, Staff Writer

1. The Randle Reef Contaminated Sediment Remediation Project – Hamilton, Ontario

Cost: $138.9 million

Contaminant: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs),
heavy metals

Approximately 60 hectares in size and containing 695 000 cubic metres of sediment contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals, the Randle Reef restoration project is three decades in the making. The pollution stems from various industries in the area including coal gasification, petroleum refining, steel making, municipal waste, sewage and overland drainage.1

Slated to be completed in three stages, the first stage involved the completion of a double steel sheet-piled walled engineered containment facility (ECF) around the most contaminated sediments, with stage 2 consists of dredging of the contaminated sediments into the ECF. Stage 3 will involve dewatering of the sediments in the ECF and treating the wastewater to discharge back into the lake, and the sediments will be capped with 60 cm of sand and silt enriched with organic carbon. This cap will both the isolate the contaminated sediments from the environment and form a foundation or future port structures. The ECF will be capped with layers of several material, including various sizes of aggregate, geo-textile and geo-grid, wickdrains, and asphalt and or concrete. This isolates the contaminants and provides a foundation for future port structures.

The project is expected to be completed by 2022 and cost $138.9 million. The Hamilton Port Authority will take over monitoring, maintenance, and development responsibilities of the facility for its expected 200-year life span. It is expected to provide $151 in economic benefits between job creation, business development, and tourism.

The Canada–United States Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement listed Hamilton harbour (which contains Randle Reef) as one of 43 Areas of Concern on the Great Lakes. Only 7 have been removed, 3 of which were in Canada.

2. Port Hope Area Initiative – Port
Hope, Ontario

Cost: $1.28 billion

Contaminant: low-level radioactive waste (LLRW),
industrial waste

The town of Port Hope, Ontario has about 1.2 million cubic metres of historic LLRW across various sites in the area. The soils and materials contain radium-226, uranium, arsenic, and other contaminants resulting from the refining process of radium and uranium between 1933 and 1988. Additional industrial waste containing metals, hydrocarbons, and dried sewage and sludge with copper and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) will also be contained at the new facility.

The material was spread across town as the tailings were given away for free to be used as fill material for backyards and building foundations. An estimated 800 properties are affected, but the low-level radiation poses little risk to humans. The Port Hope Area Initiative will cost $1.28 billion and will include monitoring before, during, and after the construction of a long term management waste facility (LTMWF).

The LTWMF will be an aboveground engineered storage mound on the site of an existing LLRW management facility to safely store and isolate the contaminated soil and material, as well as other industrial waste from the surrounding area. The existing waste will also be excavated and relocated to the engineered mound. Leachate collection system, monitoring wells, and sensors in the cover and baseliner will be used to evaluate the effectiveness of the storage mound, allowing for long term monitoring of the waste.

The
facility also contains a wastewater treatment plant that will treat surface
water and groundwater during construction of the facility, as well as the
leachate after the completion of the storage mound. The plant utilizes a two
stage process of chemical precipitation and clarification (stage 1) and reverse
osmosis (stage 2) to treat the water to meet the Canadian Nuclear Safety
Commission requirements for water discharged to Lake Ontario.

3. Marwell Tar Pit – Whitehorse, Yukon
Territory

Cost: $6.8 million

Contaminant: petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs), heavy
metals

This
$6.8 million project funded by the governments of Canada and Yukon will
remediate the Marwell Tar Pit in Whitehorse, which contain 27 000 cubic metres
of soil and groundwater contaminated with hydrocarbons, such as
benz[a]anthracene and heavy and light extractable petroleum hydrocarbons and
naphthalene, and heavy metals such as manganese. Some of the tar has also migrated
from the site.

Contamination
began during the Second World War, when a crude oil refinery operated for less
than one year before closing and being dismantled. The sludge from the bottom
of dismantled storage tanks (the “tar”) was deposited in a tank berm, and over time
other industries and businesses added other liquid waste to the tar pit. In the
1960s the pit was capped with gravel, and in 1998 declared a “Designated
Contaminated Site.”

The
project consists of three phases: preliminary activities, remedial activities,
and post-remedial activities. The preliminary phase consisted of consolidating
and reviewing existing information and completing addition site assessment.

The
second phase of remedial activities began in July 2018 and involves
implementing a remedial action plan. Contaminated soil segregated and heated through
thermal conduction, which vaporizes the contaminants, then the vapours are
destroyed by burning. Regular testing is done to ensure air quality standards
are met. The main emissions from the site are carbon dioxide and water vapour. Remediated
soil is used to backfill the areas of excavation. This phase is expected to be
completed in 2019-2020.

The
final phase will involve the monitoring of the site to demonstrate the
remediation work has met government standards. This phase is planned to last
four years. The project began in 2011 and is expected to be completed in
2020-2021.

4. Boat Harbour – Nova Scotia

Cost: approx.$133 million

Contaminant: PHCs, PAHs, heavy metals, dioxins and
furans

The provinces largest contaminated site, Boar Harbour, is the wastewater lagoon for the local pulp mill in Abercrombie Point, as well as the discharge point for a former chemical supplier in the area. Prior to 1967, Boat Harbour was a saltwater tidal estuary covering 142 hectares, but a dam built in 1972 separated Boat Harbour from the ocean, and it is now a freshwater lake due to the receiving treated wastewater from the mill since the 1967.

The
wastewater effluent contains contaminants including dioxins and furans, PAHs, PHCs,
and heavy metals such as cadmium, mercury, and zinc. In 2015, the government of
Nova Scotia passed The Boat Harbour Act, which ordered that Boat Harbour cease
as the discharge point for the pulp mill’s treated wastewater in 2020, which
allows time to build a new wastewater treatment facility and time to plan the
remediation of Boat Harbour.

The
estimated cost of the cleanup is $133 million, which does not include the cost
of the new treatment facility. The goal is to return the harbour to its
original state as a tidal estuary. The project is currently in the planning
stages and updates can be found at https://novascotia.ca/boatharbour/.

5. Faro Mine – Faro, Yukon

Cost: projected$450 million

Contaminant: waste rock leachate and tailings

Faro Mine was once the largest open-pit lead-zinc mine in the world, and now contains about 70 million tonnes of tailings and 320 million tonnes of waste rock, which can potentially leach heavy metals and acids into the environment. The mine covers 25 square kilometres, and is located near the town of Faro in south-central Yukon, on the traditional territory of three Kasha First Nations – the Ross River Dena Council, Liard First Nation and Kaska Dena Council. Downstream of the mine are the Selkirk First Nation.

The
Government of Canada funds the project, as well as leads the maintenance, site
monitoring, consultation, and remediation planning process. The Government of
Yukon, First Nations, the Town of Faro, and other stakeholders are also responsible
for the project and are consulted regularly to provide input.

The
entire project is expected to take about 40 years, with main construction activities
to be completed by 2022, followed by about 25 years of remediation. The
remediation project includes upgrading dams to ensure tailings stay in place,
re-sloping waste rock piles, installing engineered soil covers over the
tailings and waste rock, upgrading stream diversions, upgrading contaminant
water collection and treatment systems.

6. Sylvia Grinnell River Dump – Iqaluit,
Nunavut

Cost: $5.4 million

Contaminant: PHCs, polychlorinated biphenyls
(PCBs), pesticides

Transport Canada awarded a contract of over $5.4 million in 2017 for a cleanup of a historic dump along the mouth of Sylvia Grinnell River in Iqaluit, Nunavut. The dump contains metal debris from old vehicles and appliances, fuel barrels, and other toxic waste from a U.S. air base, and is a site for modern day rogue dumping for items like car batteries. This has resulted in petroleum hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides, and other hazardous substances being identified in the area.

The Iqaluit airfield was founded in Frobisher Bay by the U.S. military during World War 2 as a rest point for planes flying to Europe. During the Cold War, the bay was used as part of the Distant Early Warning (DEW) Line stations across the north to detect bombers from the Soviet Union. When the DEW was replaces by the North Warning System in the 1980s, these stations were abandoned and the contaminants and toxic waste left behind. Twenty-one of these stations were remediated by the U.S. Department of National Defence at a cost of about $575 in 2014.

The Sylvia Grinnell River remediation project is part of the Federal government’s responsibility to remediate land around the airfield that was transferred to the Government of Nunavut in the 1990s.The contract was awarded in August 2017 and was completed in October. The remaining nontoxic is sealed in a new landfill and will be monitored until 2020.

7. Greenwich-Mohawk Brownfield – Brantford,
Ontario

Cost: $40.78 million

Contaminant: PHC, PAC, heavy metals, vinyl
chloride

The
City of Brantford have completed a cleanup project of 148 000 cubic metres of
contaminated soil at the Greenwich-Mohawk brownfield site. The area was historically
the location of various farming manufacturing industries that shut down,
leaving behind contaminants like PHC, PAC, heavy metals like lead, xylene, and
vinyl chloride.

Cleanup
began in 2015, and consisted coarse grain screening, skimming, air sparging,
and recycling of 120 000 litres of oil from the groundwater, using biopiles to
treat contaminated soil onsite with 73% of it being reused and the rest
requiring off site disposal.

Barriers
were also installed to prevent future contamination from an adjacent rail line
property, as well as to contain heavy-end hydrocarbons discovered during the
cleanup that could not be removed due to the release odorous vapours throughout
the neighbourhood. The 20 hectare site took two years to clean and costed only
$40.78 million of the allocated $42.8 million between the all levels of
government, as well as the Federation of Canadian Municipalities Green
Municipal Fund.

8. Rock Bay Remediation Project –
Victoria, British Columbia

Cost: $60 million

Contaminant: PAHs, hydrocarbons, metals

Located near downtown Victoria and within the traditional territories of the Esquimalt Nation and Songhees Nation, the project entailed remediating 1.73 hectares of contaminated upland soils and 2.02 hectares of contaminated harbour sediments. The site was the location of a former coal gasification facility from the 1860s to the 1950s, producing waste products like coal tar (containing PAHs), metals, and other hydrocarbons, which have impacted both the sediments and groundwater at the site.

Remediation occurred in three stages. From 2004 to 2006, the first two stages involving the remediation of 50 300 tonnes of hazardous waste soils, 74 100 tonnes of non-hazardous waste soils, and 78 500 tonnes of contaminated soils above commercial land use levels. In 2009, 250 tonnes of hazardous waste were dredged from two sediment hotspots at the head of Rock Bay. About 7 million litres of hydrocarbon and metal impacted groundwater have been treated or disposed of, and an onsite wastewater treatment plant was used to return treated wastewater to the harbour.

Construction
for the final stage occurred between 2014 to 2016 and involved:

  • installing
    shoring along the property boundaries to remove up to 8 metres deep of
    contaminated soils,
  • installing
    a temporary coffer dams
  • draining
    the bay to remove the sediments in dry conditions, and
  • temporary
    diverting two storm water outfalls around the work area.

Stage
three removed 78 000 tonnes of contaminated and 15 000 tonnes of
non-contaminated sediment that were disposed of/ destroyed at offsite
facilities.

Final post-remediation monitoring was completed in January 2017, with post-construction monitoring for 5 years required as part of the habitat restoration plan to ensure the marine habitat is functioning properly and a portion of the site will be sold to the Esquimalt Nation and Songhees Nation.

9. Bushell Public Port Facility
Remediation Project – Black Bay (Lake Athabasca), Saskatchewan

Cost: $2 million

Contaminant: Bunker C fuel oil

 Built in 1951 and operated until the mid-1980s, the Bushell Public Port Facility consist of two lots covering 3.1 hectares with both upland and water lots. The facility supplied goods and services to the local mines, and petroleum products to the local communities of Bushell and Uranium City. Historical activities like unloading, storing, and loading fuel oil, as well as a large spill in the 1980s resulted in the contaminated soil, blast rock, and bedrock in Black Bay that have also extended beyond the waterlot boundaries.

The remediation work occurred between 2005 to 2007, and involved excavation of soil and blast rock, as well as blasting and removing bedrock where oil had entered through cracks and fissures.

Initial
remediation plans were to crush and treat the contaminated material by low
temperature thermal desorption, which incinerates the materials to burn off the
oil residue. However, opportunities for sustainable reuse of the contaminated
material came in the use of the contaminated crush rock for resurfacing of the
Uranium City Airport. This costed $1.75 million less than the incineration
plan, and saved the airport project nearly 1 million litres of diesel fuel. The
crush was also used by the Saskatchewan Research Council in the reclamation of
the Cold War Legacy Uranium Mine and Mill Sites. A long term monitoring event
is planned for 2018.

10. Thunder Bay North Harbour –
Thunder Bay, Ontario

Cost: estimated at upwards to $50 million

Contaminant: Paper sludge containing mercury and other contaminants

 While all of the projects discussed so far have either been completed or are currently in progress, in Thunder Bay, the plans to clean up the 400 000 cubic metres of mercury contaminated pulp and fibre have been stalled since 2014 due to no organization or government designated to spearhead the cleanup.

While
the water lot is owned by Transport Canada, administration of the site is the
responsibility of the Thunder Bay Port Authority, and while Transport Canada
has told CBC that leading the cleanup is up to the port, the port authority was
informed by Transport Canada that the authority should only act in an advisory
role. Environmental Canada has participated in efforts to advance the planning
of the remediation work, but is also not taking the lead in the project either.
Further complications are that the industries responsible for the pollution no
longer exist.

Industrial activities over 90 years have resulted in the mercury contamination, which range in concentrations between 2 to 11 ppm on surface sediments to 21 ppm at depth. The thickness ranges from 40 to 380 centimetres and is about 22 hectares in size. Suggested solutions in 2014 include dredging the sediment and transferring it to the Mission Bay Confined Disposal Facility, capping it, or building a new containment structure. As of October 2018, a steering committee lead by Environment Canada, Transport Canada, Ontario’s environmental ministry and the Thunder Bay Port Authority, along with local government, Indigenous groups, and other stakeholders met to evaluate the remediation options, as well as work out who will lead the remediation.

Observations from a CBRNe training consolidation exercise

by Steven Pike , Argon Electronics

While accidental or deliberate chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and explosives (CBRNe) incidents are still widely considered to be fairly low probability events, their impact on citizens, society and infrastructure can be immense.

If and when they do occur, the speed of response has been shown to be absolutely critical when it comes to taking charge of the scene, avoiding further contamination and saving lives.

Research published by the ORCHIDS (Optimisation Through Research of Chemical Incident Contamination Systems) project provides quantitative evidence of the recommended techniques for handling potential contaminants or scenarios that will require emergency mass casualty decontamination.

Amongst its findings are:

  • The importance of swift evacuation, disrobing and decontamination – ideally within 15 minutes
  • Ensuring the safety of first responders by the carrying out of ongoing hazard assessments throughout the incident
  • The importance of clear communication to casualties or bystanders throughout the response in order to foster trust and confidence in the activities
  • Effective situation reporting from the scene to enable all agencies to retain shared situational awareness

The knowledge, skills and experience of those charged with CBRNe instruction is paramount in ensuring that the best possible training is provided to those emergency response personnel tasked with responding to hazardous incidents.

But finding innovative ways to create realistic CBRNe training – in a manner that accurately depicts the reality of modern threats, and that replicates the array of sophisticated detector equipment available – can present a very real challenge for instructors.

One of the biggest obstacles is undoubtedly time. Training exercises, by necessity, often need to take place within tight timeframes. While an actual search and survey mission may take many hours to complete, an exercise may need to be truncated to a matter of minutes. 

Having had the opportunity to observe a wide variety of CBRNe scenarios and consolidation exercises over the years, a few key factors have become especially apparent when it comes to the efficacy both of the training and the training environment.

The value of hands-on experience

Classroom learning undoubtedly has its place, but providing trainees with the opportunity to handle actual detector equipment, or replica simulator detectors, in life-like scenarios is key to their understanding.

And, as we have discussed in previous blog posts on the subject, the more realistic the scenario the better the outcomes both for the trainee and the instructor.

Having confidence in your equipment

In the early stages of an incident it may sometimes be difficult for a first responder to establish that a CBRNe incident has even occurred.

In some cases there may be visual indicators, odd smells or tastes, or obvious physical symptoms which provide a clue to the presence of a threat.

But while hazardous chemical releases are often (but not always) accompanied by a more rapid onset of symptoms, radiological or biological releases may not become apparent for minutes or even hours after the initial event.

These factors mean it is all the more important that trainees have confidence in their personal protective equipment (PPE), confidence in use of their detectors and confidence in the readings that they obtain.

With that said, participants don’t always get to spend a huge amount of time handling the equipment, which means ease of use and simplicity of operation are extremely important factors.

Managing the challenges of PPE

Something that becomes immediately apparent once trainees don their PPE equipment is just how much their visual, verbal, auditory and manual capacity is affected.

The sense of psychological isolation, anxiety and/or feelings of claustrophobia are also very real issues. And it is up to the trainee to be able to manage these physical and psychological challenges, whilst staying focused on the task at hand and ensuring they deliver accurate information to those up the chain of command.

Having access to, experience of (and confidence in) their detector equipment is a critical element of effective CBRNe response.

Even when working within tight time constraints, an observance of methodical scene management will be critical to ensuring that emergency responders are able to work in a controlled environment, that risk to themselves and the public is minimised, and that any potential crime scene is protected.

______________________________________________

About the Author

Steven Pike is the Founder and Managing Director of Argon Electronics, a leader in the development and manufacture of Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) and hazardous material (HazMat) detector simulators. 
He is interested in liaising with CBRN professionals and detector manufacturers to develop training simulators as well as CBRN trainers and exercise planners to enhance their capability and improve the quality of CBRN and Hazmat training.

Canadian Federal Government Proposing New Regulations on Cross-border movement of Hazardous Waste

Environment Canada and Climate Change (ECCC), which is the Canadian equivalent of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, recently released draft regulations to control the cross-border movement of hazardous waste and hazardous recyclable material. The regulations, if eventually promulgated, would repeal and replace the Export and Import Regulations, the Interprovincial Movement Regulations, and the PCB Waste Export Regulations. Although the proposed Regulations would maintain the core permitting and movement tracking requirements of the former regulations, the regulatory provisions would be amended to ensure greater clarity and consistency of the regulatory requirements.

Electronic Tracking System

The proposed Regulations would provide flexibility for the electronic movement tracking system by no longer prescribing the specific form required for tracking shipments of hazardous waste and hazardous recyclable material. Instead, the proposed Regulations would require specific information to be included in a movement document (that can be generated electronically) and would allow movement document information to be passed on to different parties in parallel to facilitate the tracking rather than prescribing the handover of copies from one party to another.

Furthermore, given that movement documents would be able to be managed electronically, the proposed Regulations would no longer require that the movement document and permit physically accompany the shipment. The proposed Regulations would instead require parties to immediately produce the movement document and the permit upon request. Similar simplifications would be included in the provisions related to the movement document for interprovincial movements of hazardous waste and hazardous recyclable material.

The proposed Regulations would clarify the responsibility of a receiving (importing) facility to pass on information regarding the origin of the hazardous waste and hazardous recyclable material being transferred to a subsequent authorized facility for final disposal or recycling. As the safety of everyone is important and so is protecting the environment, it would make sense to find a contact for consultation if you need help with your company’s regulatory needs.
Clarifications would also be made to the provisions for the return and rerouting of shipments to better align those requirements with current practice and ensure that confirmation of disposal from the alternative facility is also required in order to properly complete the tracking of those shipments.

Definitions of hazardous waste and hazardous recyclable material

With respect to interprovincial movements, under the proposed regulations, the definitions of hazardous waste and hazardous recyclable material would be aligned with those of international movements. In addition, proposed changes to those definitions would ensure a more consistent application of regulatory provisions for all types of transboundary movements and would better align definitions with other jurisdictions and international agreements. Some of these proposed changes are listed below.

Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure

The proposed Regulations would reference the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), in its entirety. This procedure is a standard test method used to evaluate the mobility of a number of contaminants that may be found in waste and recyclable material and, therefore, their potential for release. While making reference to the TCLP, the Export and Import Regulations exclude a step requiring that the size of particles in a sample be reduced to fit into the testing apparatus. In order to ensure that the method is used consistently, hazardous waste and hazardous recyclable material undergoing testing would need to be shredded to meet the TCLP’s specific particle size requirement.

Electrical and electronic equipment

Electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) is not currently listed as hazardous under the Export and Import Regulations and must meet other criteria to fall under the definitions of hazardous waste or hazardous recyclable material, which can be difficult to ascertain. The proposed Regulations would clearly designate “circuit boards and display devices and any equipment that contains them” as hazardous waste or hazardous recyclable material to be controlled when destined for specific disposal or recycling operations. The proposed Regulations would maintain the exclusion currently under the Export and Import Regulations for this type of hazardous waste and hazardous recyclable material moving within OECD countries (including moving between provinces and territories in Canada).

Mercury

The proposed Regulations would remove the small quantity exclusion for hazardous waste and hazardous recyclable material containing mercury. Any waste or material containing any amount of mercury that meets the definitions of hazardous waste or hazardous recyclable material would be subject to the regulatory provisions for both international and interprovincial movements.

Batteries

Batteries are not currently listed as hazardous under the Export and Import Regulations and must meet other criteria to fall under the definitions of hazardous waste or hazardous recyclable material. Some types of batteries are clearly covered by the definitions; however, for some other types it is not clear. The proposed Regulations would clarify that all types of batteries (i.e. rechargeable and non-rechargeable) being shipped internationally or interprovincially for disposal or recycling are included in the definitions of hazardous waste and hazardous recyclable material.

Terrapure Battery Recycling Facility

Waste and recyclable material generated on ships

The proposed Regulations would add a new exclusion to clarify that waste or recyclable material generated from the normal operations of a ship is not captured by the definitions of hazardous waste and hazardous recyclable material. This exclusion would further harmonize the proposed Regulations with the Basel Convention (which excludes this waste) and the Canada Shipping Act, 2001 where this waste is already covered.

Residual quantities

The proposed Regulations would add a new exclusion for waste or recyclable material that is to be transported in a container after the contents of that container have been removed to the maximum extent feasible and before the container is either refilled or cleaned of its residual content. This exclusion would clarify that such waste or recyclable material is not captured by the definitions of hazardous waste and hazardous recyclable material.

Recycling operation R14

Over the years, ECCC has received numerous questions regarding recycling operation R14 found in Schedule 2 of the Export and Import of Hazardous Waste and Hazardous Recyclable Material Regulations. Section 2 R14 reads as follows : “Recovery or regeneration of a substance or use or re-use of a recyclable material, other than by any of operations R1 to R10”. This recycling operation is not included in the Basel Convention or the OECD Decision. ECCC is proposing to delete this part of operation R14 to remove uncertainty about its application. This change may result in some recyclable material no longer being captured and defined as hazardous. For example, a used material that is to be used directly in another process that is not listed as a recycling operation would no longer be captured.
This change would further align regulatory provisions with international guidelines under the Basel Convention.

Exports, Imports and Transits of Hazardous Waste and Hazardous Recyclable Material 2003-2012

Proposed changes regarding waste containing PCBs

The regulatory provisions for the export of waste containing PCBs would be streamlined and integrated into those for hazardous waste and hazardous recyclable material. This would include removing the partial prohibition on exports of waste containing PCBs in a concentration equal to or greater than 50 mg/kg to allow controlled exports beyond the United States. Therefore, waste and recyclable material containing PCBs in a concentration equal to or greater than 50 mg/kg would be able to be exported provided a permit is obtained and all of the conditions of the proposed Regulations are met.

Proposed changes to improve the permitting process

The proposed Regulations would no longer require the name of the insurance company and the policy number for the exporter, the importer and carriers with the notification (i.e. permit application). In addition, copies of the contracts would no longer need to be provided with the notification. In both cases, the applicant would be required to provide a statement to the effect that valid insurance policies and contracts are in place and to keep proof of insurance coverage and copies of contracts at their place of business in Canada for five years.

The proposed Regulations would require a new notification for any changes in information, other than correcting clerical errors, on a permit.

The proposed Regulations would increase the maximum duration of a permit from 12 months to 3 years, consistent with international agreements, for the movement of hazardous recyclable material directed to pre-consented facilities within OECD countries.

The proposed Regulations would set out conditions under which a permit may be refused, suspended or revoked.

Impacts on Business – Costs and Operations

According to the consultation documents prepared by ECCC, the proposed Regulations, if promulgated, would affect 295 companies, 281 of which would be considered small businesses. For these small businesses, the proposed Regulations are expected to result in incremental compliance and administrative costs of $296,000 in average annualized costs, that is, $1,070 per small business.

If the proposed Regulations are implemented, it would result in an clarifications to the definitions of hazardous waste and would ensure a more consistent application of regulatory provisions. In addition, the proposed Regulations would help minimize environmental impacts outside Canada by ensuring that exported hazardous waste and hazardous recyclable material reach the intended disposal or recycling facilities. For any company that performs hazardous operations, the idea to try and find flexible safety doors is one that could benefit industries such as transportation and the medical field, as this helps increase safety in this process and acts as a security barrier between any hazards. The present value of compliance and administrative costs of the proposed Regulations would be $2.5 million in 2017 Canadian dollars, discounted at 3% to 2018 over a 10-year period between 2021 and 2030.

The proposed Regulations would impose incremental administrative costs on industry attributable to the completion of additional movement documents for interprovincial movements of hazardous waste and hazardous recyclable material. Provincial and territorial authorities that are using a tracking system would achieve small savings if they decided not to request movement document information. The present value of administrative costs of the proposed Regulations are expected to be $460,000 in 2017 Canadian dollars, discounted at 3% to 2018, over a 10-year period between 2021 and 2030.

Public Consultation

Public comments to the proposed Regulations are being accepted by ECCC until up to mid-February. Any person may file with the Minister of the Environment comments with respect to the proposed Regulations or a notice of objection requesting that a board of review be established under section 333 of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 and stating the reasons for the objection. All comments and notices must cite the Canada Gazette, Part I, and the date of publication of this notice, and be sent by mail to Nathalie Perron, Director, Waste Reduction and Management Division, Environmental Protection Branch, Department of the Environment, 351 Saint-Joseph Blvd., Gatineau, Quebec K1A 0H3 (fax: 819-938-4553; email: [email protected]).

Forecast for U.S. Federal and International Chemical Regulatory Policy 2019: Hazardous Materials

The ACTA Group of Bergeson & Campbell PC recently wrote an article in the National Law Review (NLR) forecasting the U.S. federal and international chemical regulatory policy related to hazardous materials for the coming year. The two major areas covered are hazardous materials transportation and trade.

Under hazardous materials transportation, the NLR article predicts that the
The U.S. Department of Transportation’s (DOT) Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) will face the challenge of a growing burden on it as the scope and complexity of its mission grows. The article predicts this pressure will require the PHMSA to fundamentally rethink how it will use data, information, and technology to achieve its safety goals.

The article states that new information and research will drive much of what PHMSA undertakes in 2019. Advances in technology, enhanced commerce, and a rapidly evolving global trade in hazardous materials must be matched by PHMSA if it is to satisfy its mandates. At this point, PHMSA appears to recognize these new challenges and is poised to maintain its highly honed edge on hazardous materials transportation.

Specific actions that PHMSA will undertake in 2019 include the following:

  • Legislative requirements in the Fixing America’s Surface Transportation (FAST) Act, especially as it applies to high hazard flammable trains – PHMSA is slated to promulgate a final rule pursuant to the FAST Act that will expand the applicability of comprehensive oil spill response plans based on thresholds of liquid petroleum that apply to an entire train ;
  • Transportation of lithium batteries by air;
  • Conversion of special permits;
  • International standards harmonization; and
  • Identifying research gaps and determining priorities.

The NLR article states that PHMSA can be expected to continue to promulgate rules in compliance with its statutory mandates but it also recognizes the need to shore up gaps and to keep pace with an accelerating array of products that are transported in commerce. New information and research will drive much of what PHMSA undertakes in 2019. Advances in technology, enhanced commerce, and a rapidly evolving global trade in hazardous materials must be matched by PHMSA if it is to satisfy its mandates.

With respect to U.S. trade with other countries, the NRL article discusses the five pillars of U.S. trade policy:

  1. Trade Policy that Supports National Security Policy;
  2. Strengthening the American Economy;
  3. Negotiating Trade Deals that Work for All Americans;
  4. Enforcing and Defending U.S. Trade Laws; and
  5. Strengthening the Multilateral Trading System.

Specific trade actions are discussed in the NRL article that apply hazardous materials including the new agreement that replaces the North American Free Trade Agreement and the new focus of the U.S. on bi-lateral trade agreements.

What are the most common HazMat threats for first responders?

by Steven Pike, Argon Electronics

The unintentional release of toxic chemicals can pose a wide range of physical, health and environmental hazards. And when it comes to the storage, handling or transport of hazardous materials (HazMat), safety is paramount.

The US Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) defines HazMat as any substance that is potentially harmful to human health or the environment. 

While there are a multitude of precautions that industries will take to stay safe, in the event of accidental spillage due to a road traffic accident or as the result of an industrial incident, highly trained HazMat crews will be called on to mitigate the threat.

In this article, we explore eight of the most common hazardous materials that first responders are likely to encounter in the event of an industrial accident or road transport incident.

1) Carbon Dioxide

Refrigerated carbon dioxide is a colorless,
odorless, non-flammable gas used to chill or freeze food products as part of
the process of transport to market.

Although non-toxic, when carbon dioxide
displaces oxygen in confined spaces the carbon dioxide vapors can cause
headache, nausea, dizziness or asphyxiation. And when carbon dioxide comes into
contact with skin it can also cause severe burns.

When responding to incidents where C02 is stored, firefighters need to be alert to the possibility of leakages. A low oxygen meter should be used to determine that an area is safe for occupancy.

2) Chlorine

Chlorine is a key component in the production of key industrial and consumer products including the vast majority of pharmaceutical production and virtually all crop protection chemicals.

It is a highly reactive and volatile
substance, particularly when in the presence of heat, and is considered to be
among the most dangerous of hazardous materials.

Chlorine is classified as both a Toxic Inhalation Hazard (TIH) and a Poison Inhalation Hazard (PIH).

3) Fireworks

Both the transport and storage of consumer fireworks pose a high fire risk. In the United Kingdom (UK), the physical movement (transfer) of explosives from one place to another (excluding those moved within a site) requires a Recipient Competent Authority (RCA) document. 

According to the UK’s Health and Safety Executive (HSE) a license is
required from an appropriate licensing authority in order to be able to store
explosives, however depending on their hazard type certain quantities of
explosives can be kept for a short time without the need for a license. 

In the US, the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) has issued mandatory safety regulations for fireworks devices that are regulated under the Federal Hazardous Substances Act.

4) Gasoline

Typical gasoline contains approximately 150
different chemicals including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene.

The highly flammable nature of gasoline,
the ease with which it evaporates and its explosive potential in air, makes it
a high exposure risk. Gasoline exposure can occur through the breathing of
gasoline vapours, via the drinking of contaminated water or by coming into
contact with contaminated soil.

Gasoline should only be stored in approved
containers and must not be handled near any ignition source.

5) Argon

A refrigerated liquid, Argon is most
commonly used in the production of fluorescent light bulbs and in welding.

Argon is classed as neither flammable nor toxic, however it can cause significant tissue damage if it comes into contact with skin and it can be extremely harmful if inhaled. To avoid sudden releases Argon is transported in upright cylinders.

6) Sulfuric Acid

Sulfuric acid (also known as “battery
acid”, “hydrgen sulfate” and “oil of vitriol”) is one
of the most important compounds in the chemical industry. The annual
production of sulfuric acid worldwide has been predicted to hit 260 million tonnes by the end of 2018. 

Sulfuric acid is used widely in the
production of phosphate fertilizers, metal processing, lead-based batteries,
fiber production and chemical manufacturing (including paints, pigments, dyes
and synthetic detergents.)

It is a highly corrosive substance which is
destructive to skin, eyes, teeth and lungs. Severe exposure can be fatal.

7) Propylene

Propylene is a volatile, flammable gas used
as a crucial product in the petrochemical, packaging and plastics industries.

It is often used in the place of propane in
high-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) processes. Propylene gas poses a fire hazard
when it is handled in the vicinity of any equipment capable of causing ignition.

8) Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)

Comprising a combination of propane and butane, LPG is commonly used as
both a fuel (to heat vehicles and appliances) and as a refrigerant. Its mixture
of hydrocarbon gases poses a major fire risk which means it must be stored in
pressured vessels.

Toxic chemicals can pose a wide range of
potential health and physical hazards to those employees operating within
industrial plants and to the personnel charged with handling or transporting
these substances. And as such they are heavily regulated.

In the rare case of accidental release, the knowledge of HazMat crews can provide life-saving assistance in identifying the threat, containing the area and mitigating the effects of the incident. 

This article was first published on the Argon Electronics website.

___________________________________

About the Author

Steven Pike is the Founder and Managing Director of Argon Electronics, a leader in the development and manufacture of Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) and hazardous material (HazMat) detector simulators.
He is interested in liaising with CBRN professionals and detector manufacturers to develop training simulators as well as CBRN trainers and exercise planners to enhance their capability and improve the quality of CBRN and Hazmat training.

What is the best HazMat training method to keep first responders safe

by Steven Pike, Argon Electronics

While regulations exist to guide HazMat training requirements for first  responders, the reality is that many personnel still don’t consider themselves to be adequately skilled in the use of their equipment.

Sometimes it’s because there simply isn’t enough time to carry out regular and structured training programmes. Sometimes this lack of preparedness comes as the result of budget cuts where training is one of the first things to go.

So says, independent CBRN consultant and subject matter expert, Debra Robinson in a white paper she has written which explores the subject of keeping first responders safe.

As Debra explains, it’s not enough for a department to simply purchase a full array of safety and monitoring equipment.

“Responders
need to be thoroughly knowledgeable about the capabilities, limitations and
applications and be proficient in the use of each piece of equipment, and that
takes a great deal of training,” she says.

It would seem too that smaller fire departments are often the ones losing out, with many volunteers not always being crystal clear on what their training requirements even entail. 

“Large city or larger communities with paid fire departments are far better off than the smaller departments. Some 70-80% of fire departments across the United States are manned by volunteers and many struggle to find volunteers to provide the services, let alone complete the requisite training,” she says.

For those departments that do have training coordinators and solid programs in place,there is still the challenge of trying to deliver equipment training that provides the most realistic learning experience possible whilst also guaranteeing personnel safety.

As Debra points out,the equipment that is used to detect, identify and measure hazardous materials can often involve significant risk, even in the presumed safety of a training environment.

Some trainers may still defer to more traditional HazMat training methods – such as the use of powerful simulants that closely mimic the properties of chemical materials. But many of these simulants can be hazardous in their own right,even in the smallest and most controlled of quantities.

In recent years, Debra explains, there’s been more of a move towards the use of training simulators which rely on specific frequencies and technologies to replicate the effects of actual, chemical, radiological and biological materials.

Says Debra: “The obvious benefit is the simulators greatly reduce the risks associated with the use of live agents. Used properly, they can be a valuable training tool and can provide for a much more realistic training environment.”

Simulators have developed a strong reputation for their abilities to facilitate hands-on training that can simply not be achieved with live agent training methods. Live agents by their nature carry an extreme level of inherent risk – something that is eliminated through the use of simulator equipment.

As Debra highlights, having the opportunity for some “serious hands-on time with the equipment” is another major plus for trainees, where repetition is the key to successful learning.

And there are also tangible benefits to be gained for a department’s bottom-line, she says, with the return on investment (ROI) being clearly evident in fewer operator errors,as well as “reduced damage to detectors, avoidance of simulant and source related administration etc. and perhaps even lower insurance premiums.”

As Debra argues, it can be easy for political or government leaders to dismiss the need for investment in CBRNe and HazMat training – and particularly when budgets are tight. Bu the risk to communities from chemical, biological or radiological threat is very real. While this may come in the form of terrorist threats, there is also the much greater risk of hazardous materials that exist in our communities’industrial plants, hospitals and businesses.

As Debra concludes:”Ultimately, the decision-point and justification is quite simple. Are you willing to accept the risks associated with under-qualified personnel and insufficient training and capabilities, or should you consider moving toward ensuring you have sufficiently trained, equipped and qualified personnel to respond to the hazards that exist in the community?”

Debra Robinson is founder of 2o8 Consulting & Solutions, based in Lincoln, Nebraska. She provides consulting and SME services in chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) and Emergency Management preparedness across a diverse range of platforms and industries.

This article was first published in Argon Electronics website.

About the Author

Steven Pike is the Founder and Managing Director of Argon Electronics, a world leader in the development and manufacture of Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) and hazardous material (HazMat) detector simulators.

Market Report on VOC Detectors

VOC Detector Market

QY Research recently published the Global Market Study VOC Detector Market Provide Forecast Report 2018 – 2025.  The report presents a detailed analysis of the VOC Detector market which researched industry situations, market Size, growth and demands, VOC Detector market outlook, business strategies utilized, competitive analysis by VOC Detector Market Players, Deployment Models, Opportunities, Future Roadmap, Value Chain, and Major Player Profiles. The report also presents forecasts for VOC Detector investments from 2018 till 2025.

United States is the largest Manufaturer of VOC Detector Market and consumption region in the world, Europe also play important roles in global VOC Detector market while China is fastest growing region. The 126 page VOC Detector report provides tables and figures and analysis the VOC Detector market. The report gives a visual, one-stop breakdown of the leading products, submarkets and market leader’s market revenue forecast as well as analysis and prediction of the VOC Detector market to 2025.

Geographically, this report splits the global market into several key Regions, with sales (K Units), revenue (Million USD), market share and growth rate of VOC Detector for these regions, from 2013 to 2025 (forecast), covering United States, China, Europe, Japan, Southeast Asia, and India.

The report provides an analysis of the global VOC Detector market competition by top manufacturers/players, with VOC Detector sales volume, Price (USD/Unit), revenue (Million USD) and market share for each manufacturer/player.  The top players include the following: REA Systems; Ion Science; Thermo Fisher; Skyeaglee; Omega; and E Instruments.

The report provides an overview of the global market on the basis of product.  This report displays the production, revenue, price, market share and growth rate of each type, primarily split into the following types of detectors:
PID and Metal-oxide Semiconductor.   The report also breaks down the global market based on application as follows:  Environmental Site Surveying; Industrial Hygiene; and HazMat/Homeland Security.

RAE Systems Gas Detector