The remediation workshop, held as part of the 33rd Annual AEHS International Conference on Soil, Water, Energy and Air, explained how remediation systems involving extraction or injection work in the subsurface and how to optimize systems for maximum efficiency. The workshop covered:

  1. Introduction and history of pump and treat and vacuum-driven extraction methods, soil vapor extraction (SVE), two-phase extraction (TPE), dual phase extraction (DPE), and multi-phase extraction (MPE), air, ozone and propane sparging methods, in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO), in-situ enhanced bioremediation (EISB) with or without bioaugmentation, in-situ abiotic remediation using zero-valent iron (ZVI) injection, optimizing injection and extraction methods, an overview of PFAS remediation alternatives, and emerging technologies for PFAS remediation.
  2. SVE/TPE/MPE applications – how to set up a pilot test, estimate well flows from soil permeability data, perform a reality check on calculation, and estimate the radius of influence (ROI)/zone of influence (ZOI) and removal rates, how to monitor in situ bioremediation during SVE, intermittent or continuous operation, what is a reasonable rebound time on SVE, designing a drop tube for maximum water, vapor flow, and water lift for TPE. An introduction, comparative evaluation, and optimization for in-well stripping and recirculation methods.
  3. Electronic field data collection, analysis and reporting, remediation progress evaluation, endpoint determination, remediation hydraulics, and effective porosity vs mobile porosity.
  4. In situ injection methods, ISCO, EISB, ZVI injection, estimating /calculating dosage, implementing advanced site characterization tools and 3D statistical modeling to optimize remediation design, pre-, during and post-injection monitoring. Tools of the trade, what worked best and what did not.
  5. An overview of PFAS remediation alternatives: anion exchange, granular activated carbon, reverse osmosis, supercritical water oxidation, and other emerging remediation methods.

Case studies are presented for each remediation Alternative.