The paper considers how sustainable remediation is being deployed in practice based on a review of 10 sustainable remediation case studies, primarily from the United Kingdom but also from Spain and Belgium, collated for the European industry network Concawe.

The 10 case studies selected are drawn from a wide range of site types: a vehicle maintenance facility; oil and gas infrastructure sites; industrial, manufacturing, and distribution sites; and, petrol retail sites. These include a range of operational and development sites, but primarily operational sites.

Nearly all of the case studies (nine out of 10) consider saturated zone impacts, with three also considering unsaturated zone impacts and two considering surface water impacts. The risk drivers reflect this predominance of water impacts.

The majority of case studies deal with petroleum hydrocarbon contaminants and associated contaminants such as methyl tert-butyl ether. However, three of the case studies also have chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants.

Each case study includes a conceptual site model describing the risk management context and the source-pathway-receptor linkages being addressed.

Most of the case studies relate to commercially applied remediation installations. However, several describe initial or pilot studies, which are to be scaled up if effective.

Seven case studies are located in the United Kingdom, one each in Belgium and Spain, and one is confidential. The predominance of UK-based case studies reflects the effectiveness of SuRF-UK at promoting sustainable remediation in the United Kingdom and how open the regulatory agency is to sustainable approaches and actions, evidenced by how it has embedded sustainability within its Land Contamination Risk Management (LCRM) guidance (Environment Agency, 2020), which states that “We support a sustainable approach to land contamination risk management” and directs readers to both SuRF-UK and ISO resources.

Each case study includes an individual case study report, which can be downloaded for free from