Soil and Groundwater Remediation Technologies: A Practical Guide

This book offers various soil and water treatment technologies due to increasing global soil and water pollution. In many countries, the management of contaminated land has matured, and it is developing in many others. Topics covered include chemical and ecological risk assessment of contaminated sites; phytomanagement of contaminants; arsenic removal; selection and technology diffusion; technologies and socio-environmental management; post-remediation long-term management; soil and groundwater laws and regulations; and trace element regulation limits in soil. Future prospects of soil and groundwater remediation are critically discussed in this book. Hence, readers will learn to understand the future prospects of soil and groundwater contaminants and remediation measures.

Key Features:

  • Discusses conventional and novel aspects of soil and groundwater remediation technologies
  • Includes new monitoring/sensing technologies for soil and groundwater pollution
  • Features a case study of remediation of contaminated sites in the old, industrial, Ruhr area in Germany
  • Highlights soil washing, soil flushing, and stabilization/solidification
  • Presents information on emerging contaminants that exhibit new challenges

This book is designed for undergraduate and graduate courses and can be used as a handbook for researchers, policy makers, and local governmental institutes. Soil and Groundwater Remediation Technologies: A Practical Guide is written by a team of leading global experts in the field.

About the Book’s Authors

Yong Sik Ok, PhD, is a Full Professor at and Global Research Director of Korea University in Seoul, Korea. He currently serves as Director of the Sustainable Waste Management Program for the Association of Pacific Rim Universities (APRU).

Jörg Rinklebe, PhD, is Professor for Soil and Groundwater Management at the University of Wuppertal, Germany. Recently, Professor Rinklebe was elected as Vice President of the International Society of Trace Element Biogeochemistry (ISTEB).

Deyi Hou, PhD, is an Associate Professor at the School of Environment of Tsinghua University.

Daniel C.W. Tsang, PhD, is an Associate Professor in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the Hong Kong Polytechnic University and Honorary Associate Professor at the University of Queensland.

Filip M.G. Tack, PhD, is Professor in Biogeochemistry of Trace Elements at the Department of Green Chemistry and Technology at Ghent University. He is Head of the Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry and Applied Ecochemistry of Ghent University.

Update on the Remediation of Low-Level Radioactive Waste in Port Hope, Ontario

Canadian Nuclear Laboratories (CNL) recently announced that it has completed the excavation and transfer of historic low-level radioactive waste away from the Lake Ontario shoreline in Southeast Clarington.

The placement of the last truckloads of waste in the aboveground mound at the new long-term waste management facility, located about 700 metres north of the shoreline site, marks a milestone for the Port Granby community and the Port Hope Area Initiative (PHAI). CNL is implementing the PHAI on behalf of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), a federal Crown corporation.

“The safe and successful completion of this remediation is the culmination of years of hard work and planning carried out by CNL’s Port Hope Area Initiative team, and fulfills a key commitment by the Government of Canada to restore these lands for the local community,” said Joe McBrearty, CNL President and CEO. “This milestone represents continued progress in one of the largest and most complex environmental clean-up missions ever undertaken in Canada.”

Remediation of the legacy waste management site began in 2016 and was undertaken in stages, with each section of the site undergoing a stringent testing process to confirm that all contaminated material had been removed. Verified areas were then backfilled with clean soil and restored by hydroseeding and planting vegetation. As the cleanup neared completion, internal roads and other infrastructure were removed.

Capping and closing of the engineered storage mound at the new facility is underway and expected to be completed in summer 2021, with final landscaping targeted for summer 2022.

Dedicated systems are being installed within the mound and around the perimeter of the new facility to closely monitor the safety and performance of the facility for hundreds of years into the future.

“I want to thank the residents of Port Granby for their support and patience during the decades of community consultation, followed by the remediation and restoration of land in the heart of their rural community,” said Richard Sexton, President and CEO of AECL. “I am very pleased that CNL and its contractors have fulfilled the Government of Canada’s commitment to clean up the lakefront site so generations to come will enjoy the benefits of a cleaner environment.”

ABOUT THE PORT GRANBY PROJECT
The Port Granby Project involves the relocation of approximately 1.3 million tonnes of historic low-level radioactive waste from the legacy storage site on the shoreline of Lake Ontario in Southeast Clarington, to a new, engineered aboveground mound. Ongoing maintenance and monitoring will continue for hundreds of years after the facility is capped and closed. The historic waste resulted from radium and uranium refining operations of the former Crown corporation Eldorado Nuclear and its private sector predecessors, which operated from the 1930s to 1988.

ABOUT THE PHAI
The Port Hope Area Initiative (PHAI) represents the federal government’s commitment to respond to the community-recommended solutions for the cleanup and local, long-term, safe management of historic low-level radioactive waste in the municipalities of Port Hope and Clarington. Through its Historic Waste Program Management Office (HWP MO), Canadian Nuclear Laboratories is implementing the PHAI on behalf of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, a federal Crown corporation.

Source: CNL

Chedoke Creek spill update: City of Hamilton receives additional Orders from Ministry of the Environment, Conservation & Parks

The City of Hamilton, Ontario recently received an additional Provincial Officer’s Order from the Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Conservation & Parks (MECP) as they relate to a spill into Chedoke Creek.

In 2019, the MECP ordered the City to complete an Environmental Risk Assessment of Chedoke Creek and an Ecological Risk Assessment for Cootes Paradise. These studies both found that it was not possible to attribute environmental impacts experienced in these areas exclusively to the spill.

The most recent Order from the Ontario Environment Ministry requests that the City undertake remedial action for Chedoke Creek and Cootes Paradise. In part, the Order asks that the City develop a plan for targeted dredging in Chedoke Creek and recommends mitigation measures to improve water quality in Cootes Paradise.

The City stated that it is committed to continuing its full cooperation with the MECP’s investigation and staff will be consulting with Council regarding how we can best address the environmental concerns in Chedoke Creek and Cootes Paradise.

To date, in response to the spill, the City has taken a number of actions toward addressing the impacts of the discharge, including:

  • Undertaking clean-up of the creek, including removing 242,000 litres of “floatable material” from the surface and edge of the creek.
  • Initiating regular monitoring of water quality in impacted areas of Chedoke Creek.
  • Initiating and implementing enhanced inspections of wastewater facilities and equipment.
  • Undertaking expert studies to determine what kind of further remediation is appropriate for Chedoke Creek and Cootes Paradise.
  • The approval of four new staff members to increase the City’s ability to perform regular, routine physical inspections and preventative maintenance for City water infrastructure, as well as sampling and analyzing water and wastewater quality in Hamilton.

Background Information

In July 2018, the City of Hamilton informed the public that it had discovered that one of its combined sewer overflow tanks was discharging untreated wastewater into Chedoke Creek. The City immediately stopped the discharge and began clean-up activities in the area.

Over the course of a four-and-a-half-year period, the City estimated that approximately 24 billion litres of combined storm water runoff and sanitary sewage was discharged into Chedoke Creek. This represents approximately four per cent of the annual volume of flow to Hamilton’s wastewater treatment plants.

Investigations have determined that the spill was the result of two separate malfunctions at the Main/King combined sewer overflow tank. First, a station bypass gate in the combined sewer overflow tank that should have been in a closed position appears to have been manually opened to approximately five per cent on January 28, 2014. An error in computer programming showed this as normal operation and, as such, this error remained undetected until July 2018. Additionally, a second gate that should have remained in the open position experienced a mechanical failure in January 2018. The sensor on this piece of equipment did not pick up the failure and was reporting normal operation. Despite extensive investigations, the City has not been able to determine why the first bypass gate had been opened in January 2014.

Hazardous Waste Enforcement: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Michigan Hospital Enter into Consent Agreement

Written by Walter Wright, Mitchell, Williams, Selig, Gates & Woodyard, P.L.L.C.

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”) and Spectrum Health Hospitals (“Spectrum”) entered into an October 29th Consent Agreement and Final Order (“CAFO”) addressing alleged violations of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (“RCRA”) hazardous waste regulations. See Docket No. RCRA-05-2021-0003.

The CAFO provides that Spectrum operates a facility (“Facility”) in Grand Rapids, Michigan.

The Facility is stated to include actions or processes causing the production of hazardous waste as that term is defined under 40 C.F.R. § 260.10. Therefore, Spectrum is stated to be a generator of hazardous waste under the relevant regulations.

The Facility is stated to have during the 2019 calendar year generated 1,000 kilograms or greater of hazardous waste, or generated 1 kilogram or greater of acute hazardous waste in some calendar months (qualifying it as a large quantity generator) which it shipped off-site to a treatment storage or disposal facility.

EPA is stated to have provided Spectrum the identification of potential RCRA violations. The Facility is stated to have engaged with EPA to expeditiously assess the matter and agrees to the entry of the CAFO.

The alleged violations include:

  • Notification of Change of Hazardous Waste Activity (failure to submit for the 2019 calendar year a notification of the change of the Facility’s type of hazardous waste activity to Large Quantity Generator status)
  • Annual Reporting (failure to prepare and submit a biennial report by March 1, 2020)

The CAFO requires that Spectrum file with the Michigan environmental agency an updated Notification of RCRA Subtitle C Activities and a Biennial Hazardous Waste Report covering the 2019 calendar year.

Spectrum neither admits nor denies the factual allegations in the CAFO.

A civil penalty of $11,471 is assessed.

A copy of the CAFO can be downloaded here.


About the Author

Walter Wright has more than 30 years of experience in environmental, energy (petroleum marketing), and water law.  His expertise includes counseling clients on issues involving environmental permits, compliance strategies, enforcement defense, property redevelopment issues, environmental impact statements, and procurement/management of water rights. He routinely advises developers, lenders, petroleum marketers, and others about effective strategies for structuring real estate and corporate transactions to address environmental financial risks.

Ontario’s Auditor Report on Province’s Setting of Environmental Indicators and Targets, & Monitoring

The Office of the Auditor General of Ontario recently released a series of audit reports related to the environment in the Province.  One report examined the the value-for-money of setting environmental indicators and targets, and the subsequent monitoring.

Her report acknowledged the importance of the environment and its relationship to the economic health and social wellbeing of the people of the Province.   It stated that decision-makers and the public need an adequate picture of the state of the environment, knowledge of whether the environment is improving or deteriorating, and awareness of underlying environmental problems and risks. To have this picture, there needs to be thorough monitoring of Ontario’s environment, natural resources, wildlife, and agriculture, and clear public reporting.

The Provincial audit found that the Environment Ministry’s air and water monitoring programs are extensive, and respond to legislative and regulatory requirements, inter-jurisdictional agreements and other commitments. However, it found that the three lead ministries have not put into place effective systems and processes for setting targets, carrying out effective monitoring practices, and ensuring data quality and data sharing for certain aspects of Ontario’s environment.

With respect to environmental targets, the audit found that some environmental protection targets lack deadlines and are not evidence based. It also found that when the ministries had set targets, they did not always make them public.  Specifically, it stated that the Environment Ministry has not set targets for conserving water; decreasing hazardous and toxic substances in products; improving the water quality of lakes (other than Lake Simcoe and Lake Erie); or protecting and recovering species at risk.  It also found that the Environment Ministry’s targets to reduce the amount of waste disposed per capita lack publicized time frames for driving and measuring progress.

With respect to environmental monitoring, the audit noted that there is  no long-term, broad-scale monitoring of Ontario’s biodiversity, monitoring in Ontario’s protected areas is not required or consistent, and few environmental monitoring programs
are evaluated to ensure that they are effective.

In conclusion, the audit found that the Environment, Natural Resources and Agriculture ministries do not have effective systems and processes for setting targets, carrying out effective monitoring practices, and ensuring data quality and data sharing for certain
aspects of Ontario’s environment. These are needed for effective longer-term monitoring of Ontario’s environment, natural resources and agriculture.

In response to the audit report, the Ontario Environment Ministry stated it will explore opportunities to improve how it tracks progress and measure effectiveness of Ministry programs and how best to share program results publicly. It also stated it will review its data management approaches and look to improve the practice and application of performance measurement in our monitoring
programs.

 

Enhancing the simulation of real-life CBRN threats

Written by Steven Pike, Argon Electronics

Effective chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) threat detection relies on ensuring that response personnel are fully confident in the use of their operational equipment before they step foot into a real-life hazardous situation.

While essential knowledge can of course be gradually acquired through exposure to live incidents, the ability to handle vital CBRN detection equipment, and to interpret the readings that are obtained, is not something that can simply be ‘picked up on the job.’

What is crucial is that CBRN personnel are able to demonstrate proficiency in the detection and identification of the full spectrum of threats – from volatile organic compounds and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) to chemical warfare agents (CWAs), biological warfare agents and combustible gases.

Much headway has been made in recent years in bringing together standardised suites of mission-specific CBRN technology such as the CBRN dismounted reconnaissance sets, kits and outfit (DR-SKO) systems created by Flir.

The DR-SKO programme, which first went into development in 2008, provides the US Army, Navy, Air Force, Marines and WMD Civil Support Teams with access to highly-advanced CBRN dismounted reconnaissance capability, aiding in the countering of both current and emerging CBRN threats.

What has also been recognised however, is that alongside the procurement of these powerful CBRN detection support systems there is the need for a rigorous and sustained foundation of training and instruction.

Realistic training for modern CBRN threats

A key priority of any CBRN training programme is to ensure that operators develop proficiency in using their operational equipment – be it in configuring the various modes of their detectors prior to deployment, or understanding the importance of managing their sieve-pack consumables and sieve-pack life indicator test protocol.

Equally, there is the need for trainees to understand and experience the factors that can impact on the effectiveness of CBRN detection – recognising for example how the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) can affect their physiological, psychological and sensory abilities during a live incident.

In addition, it is also important that they are adequately trained in the use of their decontamination equipment and in the various resources that they will need for the marking, sampling and reporting of CBRN threats.

The ongoing challenge for instructors is to expose their trainees to the full range of potential CBRN threats in a way that is safe, realistic and easily repeatable.

Safe and repeatable CBRN training

Live training exercises can offer an invaluable opportunity for hands-on experience of chemical warfare agents and radiological hazards in an environment that is as near to actual life as possible.

But such training exercises can also have their limitations. Safety considerations mean there will be necessary restrictions on the quantities of CWA substances that can be used or the level of radiological source activity that can be employed – all of which in turn can dilute the effectiveness of the reading-related, decision-making experience for trainees.

Live exercises can also represent a significant expense for organisations. Choosing to use actual detectors carries with it a certain degree of risk in terms of compromising the operational readiness of that equipment and isn’t generally the most practical setting in which to train personnel in the use of their actual detector equipment.

Taking control of CBRN scenarios

Increasingly CBRN instructors are turning to the use of CBRN simulator training systems in order to provide personnel with a way to train in the use of their actual operational systems.

Simulators offer several benefits – improving trainees’ proficiency in the use of their equipment, enabling instructors to ensure that all actions have been correctly performed, and avoiding the risk of expensive damage to operational detectors.

Crucially too, simulators provide the opportunity for trainees to familiarise with their detection systems in realistic environments where mistakes can be safely made and where the parameters of training exercises can be tightly controlled.

Successful hazard identification and management relies on robust operational capability.

While a substantial amount of money is often  spent on sophisticated CBRN-specific detection equipment it is also vital that these resources are put to best use by investing in the right training tools.

Procuring the latest detector equipment is just the first step.

What is also essential is that these valuable assets are supported by a rigorous programme of instruction that thoroughly tests trainees’ practical knowledge and strengthens their operational skill.


About the Author

Steven Pike is the Founder and Managing Director of Argon Electronics, a leader in the development and manufacture of Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) and hazardous material (HazMat) detector simulators. He is interested in liaising with CBRN professionals and detector manufacturers to develop training simulators as well as CBRN trainers and exercise planners to enhance their capability and improve the quality of CBRN and Hazmat training.

Update on Faro Mine Remediation Project

The Government of Canada recently announced it had reached a significant milestone in the Faro Mine Remediation Project that will help protect the valuable fish habitat of Rose Creek.  Under the North Fork of Rose Creek Realignment Project, clean water has started to flow through a newly constructed channel that will help prevent the contamination of Rose Creek. In collaboration with Yukon partners and First Nations communities affected by the contaminated site, the Government of Canada continues to work to ensure environmental protection work is maintained throughout the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond.

The Faro Mine in south-central Yukon was once the largest open pit lead-zinc mine in the world. Today, it is the site of one of the most complex abandoned mine remediation projects in Canada. While the full remediation plan to clean up the mine is under environmental assessment, certain necessary work like this project have continued at the site as they are critical and essential for protecting human health and safety and the environment.

Realigning this section of the creek has been vital for ensuring that clean water and valuable fish habitat in Rose Creek do not come into contact with the contaminated water from mine wastes. Contaminated water can now be captured for treatment on site while the clean water safely flows into a new channel that reconnects with Rose Creek. Fish overwintering ponds have also been built to compensate for fish habitat lost due to construction.

This project has been important for the environmental protection of the area and to local First Nations: Ross River Dena Council, Liard First Nation and Selkirk First Nation. Yukon-based company Pelly Construction Ltd. was awarded the subcontract for the realignment project and partnered with Ross River Dena Council’s Dena Nezziddi Development Corporation to include training and employment of local Indigenous workers for the project.

The Dena Nezziddi Development Corporation also actively participated in the construction of a new work camp at site. The camp provided temporary housing for approximately 75 workers who came from Ross River and other communities outside of Faro and the Yukon, reducing travel between Northern communities during the COVID-19 pandemic. To date, there have been no confirmed cases of COVID-19 at the mine site.

The North Fork of Rose Creek Realignment Project has been an important and necessary part of protecting the environment and in advancing one of the most complex abandoned mine remediation projects in Canada.

QUOTES

“I would like to extend my congratulations to the Faro Mine Remediation Project team, as well as their First Nations and Yukon partners, on the North Fork of Rose Creek Realignment Project. Canada has been working collaboratively with Northern and Indigenous partners, and we are proud to see opportunities for training, employment, and engagement with Yukon First Nations on this long-term project as a whole and on critical work for environmental protection. We know that by working in collaboration with all partners, we will be able to effectively continue to advance the long-term remediation plan while also managing the immediate risks to both the health of northerners and the environment.”

The Honourable Daniel Vandal, P.C., M.P.
Minister of Northern Affairs

“Remediating the Faro Mine Site is our top priority. The completion of the North Fork of Rose Creek realignment marks an important step towards protecting the water. The Ross River Dena Council is pleased with the progress being made at the Faro Mine Site. We want to see the remediation work continue and for this to remain a top priority for Canada and the Yukon.”

Chief Jack Caesar
Ross River Dena Council

“The Government of Yukon is pleased with the advanced progress on the North Fork Rose Creek realignment project. Our skilled Yukon-based workforce is why this project can continue despite limitations due to COVID-19. We are glad that Yukoners and Yukon First Nations will benefit economically from participation in these urgent works. It also proves that Yukoners are well positioned to contribute to remediation activities being implemented at Yukon’s abandoned mines.”

Minister Ranj Pillai
Energy, Mines and Resources, Government of Yukon

“The Faro Mine Remediation Project is key to supporting our communities, strengthening our economy, and protecting the environment. Yukoners and Yukon First Nations continue to be an important part of this remediation and the North Fork of Rose Creek Realignment Project. I am happy to see the remarkable progress made as work continues during this unprecedented time. It is a testament to the dedication of all those involved in the project.”

The Honourable Larry Bagnell, P.C., Member of Parliament for Yukon

Quick Facts

  • Most work packages and subcontracts at the Faro Mine site are structured to maximize opportunities for Indigenous businesses.
  • To ensure the Faro Mine Remediation Project is a success and that all partners work cooperatively, a Transition Agreement situating management of the Faro Mine Remediation Project under the Government of Canada has been signed by both Selkirk First Nation and Ross River Dena Council.
  • Budget 2019 allocated $2.2 billion over 15 years to create the Northern Abandoned Mine Reclamation Program, starting in 2020–21. The program will remediate the largest, most complex contaminated sites in the North.

Source: Crown-Indigenous Relations and Northern Affairs Canada

An Integrated Radioactive Waste Management Strategy for Canada

The Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) recently announced that it will lead the development of an integrated radioactive waste management strategy. This is part of the Government of Canada’s Radioactive Waste Policy Review, and leverages the NWMO’s 20 years of recognized expertise in the engagement of Canadians and Indigenous peoples on plans for the safe long-term management of used nuclear fuel.

“This is important work, and we look forward to lending our expertise to make informed and practical recommendations to the Canadian government on a more comprehensive radioactive waste management strategy for low- and intermediate-level waste,” said Laurie Swami, President and CEO of the NWMO. “I want to thank Minister O’Regan for entrusting us to lead this process.”

All of Canada’s low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste is safely managed today in interim storage. An integrated strategy will ensure the material continues to be managed in accordance with international best practice over the longer-term. Building on previous work, this strategy represents a next step to identify and address any gaps in radioactive waste management planning, while looking further into the future.

“For more than 50 years, Canadian nuclear technology has been in our lives – powering our homes, making life saving medical treatments and bringing safe food to our tables,” said Karine Glenn, Strategic Project Director for the NWMO. “I look forward to this being a process of informed, balanced dialogue about what we must do to ensure that people and the environment are protected from the remaining hazards of this material long after we are gone.”

More details regarding the process will be shared in the coming weeks. Interested individuals and organizations will have a variety of ways to participate, while respecting public health directives related to the COVID-19 pandemic. Please sign up for updates at nwmo.ca/radwasteplanning.

About NWMO

The Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) is implementing Canada’s plan for the safe, long-term management of used nuclear fuel. The organization was created in 2002 by Canada’s nuclear electricity producers. Ontario Power Generation, NB Power and Hydro-Québec are the founding members, and along with Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, fund the NWMO’s operations. The NWMO operates on a not-for-profit basis and derives our mandate from the federal Nuclear Fuel Waste Act.

SOURCE Nuclear Waste Management Organization

 

Two forestry companies court-ordered to pay $40,000 for violating the Species at Risk Act

Débroussaillage Québec and Forestière des Amériques Inc. were recently each fined $20,000—for a total of $40,000—at the Longueuil, Quebec courthouse. Each company pleaded guilty to one count of violating the Emergency Order for the Protection of the Western Chorus Frog (the Emergency Order) in contravention of the Species at Risk Act. The companies pleaded guilty to the charge of carrying out a prohibited activity, namely pruning vegetation— including trees, shrubs, and bushes—in a sensitive area.

On April 23 and 24, 2018, employees of Forestière des Amériques Inc., whose services were retained by Débroussaillage Québec, carried out vegetation-cutting work under high-voltage power lines. The work was done in the enforcement area of the Emergency Order for the Protection of the Western Chorus Frog (Great Lakes / St. Lawrence — Canadian Shield Population) in the municipality of La Prairie, near Montréal.

Vegetation-cutting work in the enforcement area of the Emergency Order requires a permit under the Species at Risk Act. Neither Débroussaillage Québec nor Forestière des Amériques Inc. had a permit authorizing the brush-clearing activities. The Act prohibits killing or harming a wildlife species that is listed as threatened and damaging or destroying the habitat of these species. The Emergency Order prohibits removing, pruning, damaging, or destroying any vegetation such as trees, shrubs, or plants.

Environment and Climate Change Canada’s Enforcement Branch makes considerable efforts to ensure the protection of wildlife species and their habitat is observed by businesses and individuals. They encourage people to report any wildlife-related illegal acts that they witness to the National Environmental Emergencies Centre by calling 514-283-2333 or 1-866-283-2333 or by contacting Crime Stoppers at 1-800-222-8477 (TIPS) to anonymously report crimes related to wildlife species.

Quick facts

  • In Canada, the western chorus frog is found in southern Ontario and in the Montérégie and Outaouais regions of Quebec. The species is divided into two populations. The Carolinian population, in southwestern Ontario, is not at risk. The second population—the Great Lakes, St. Lawrence, and the Canadian Shield population—includes individuals from other regions of Ontario and from Quebec. Since 2010, this population has been listed as threatened in Schedule 1 of the Species at Risk Act.
  • Western chorus frog populations have undergone serious declines in both Quebec and Ontario. Habitat loss and degradation are the main threats to the species. In Quebec, in the Montérégie region, a decrease of over 90 percent in the species’ historical range was noted in 2009, while in the Outaouais region, over 30 percent of inhabited sites have disappeared since 1993.
  • Habitat destruction in suburban areas of southwestern Quebec is happening so quickly that populations may disappear from these areas by 2030. In these regions, the main threats to western chorus frog habitat are rapid residential and industrial development and agricultural intensification, such as the conversion of pastureland to grain crops. Many breeding sites in agricultural areas are also at risk of being contaminated by pesticides or fertilizers.
  • The area covered by the Emergency Order consists of approximately 2 km2 of partially developed land in the municipalities of La PrairieCandiac, and Saint-Philippe, on the outskirts of Montréal, Quebec. The main purpose of the Emergency Order is to prevent the loss or degradation of the habitat that the western chorus frog needs to grow and reproduce.

Chemical Spill by Quebec Mining Company results in $350,000 Fine

Breakwater Resources Limited, which operates the Langlois Mine, recently pleaded guilty in the Val‑d’Or, Quebec courthouse to one count of violating the Fisheries Act. The company was fined $350,000.

The incident that lead to the eventual fine occurred on February 28th, 2018.  A 500-litre spill of flocculent from the Langlois mining site in Lebel‑sur‑Quévillon resulted in a discharge of acutely lethal effluent into the Wedding River. The discharge of acutely lethal effluent into water frequented by fish is a violation of subsection 36(3) of the Fisheries Act.

The Langlois mine is located is located in the James Bay Territories, in northwest Québec, approximately 50 km north east of the town of Lebel-SurQuévillon and 213 km north of Val-d’Or.  The mine produces zinc and copper concentrates with lesser values of silver and gold by-products.

In October 2019, the mine’s owner announced it putting the mine down on “care and maintenance”, effectively shutting down production. The company said that rock conditions at the mine have deteriorated to the point that continued mining is not economical.

The $350,000 fine will be directed to the Government of Canada’s Environmental Damages Fund.  The company’s name will be added to the Environmental Offenders Registry.