U.S. NTSB updates list of most wanted safety improvements

The United States National Transportation Safety Board (U.S. NTSB) recently unveiled its list of most wanted safety improvements for the transportation sector in 2019-2020.

Launched in 1990, the most wanted list serves as a primary advocacy tool to help save lives, prevent injuries and reduce property damage resulting from transportation accidents, U.S. NTSB officials said in a press release. In 2017, the U.S. NTSB changed it from an annual to biennial list to provide list developers and recipients more time to implement recommendations, some of which are longstanding safety issues the board believes continue to threaten the traveling public.

The 10 items on the 2019-20 list are:
• eliminate distractions;
• end alcohol and other drug impairment;
• ensure the safe shipment of hazardous materials;
• fully implement positive train control (PTC);
• implement a comprehensive strategy to reduce speeding-related crashes;
• improve the safety of certain aircraft flight operations;
• increase the implementation of collision avoidance systems in new highway vehicles;
• reduce fatigue-related accidents;
• screen for and treat obstructive sleep apnea; and
• strengthen occupant protection.

Hazmat Safety

In terms of hazmat safety, the NTSB is calling on the rail industry to meet existing federal deadlines for replacing or retrofitting tank cars. More than 2 million miles of pipeline deliver 24 percent of the natural gas and 39 percent of the total oil consumed in the United States, yet only 16 percent of U.S. rail tank cars carrying flammable liquids meet the improved safety specifications for DOT-117/DOT-117R cars. Failure to meet safety standards by or ahead of deadlines places communities near tracks at unacceptable risks, board members believe.

The U.S. NTSB investigations have shown that moving ethanol by rail and crude oil by pipeline can be unnecessarily hazardous. These essential commodities must be conveyed in a manner that ensures the safety of those who are transporting it as well as those in the communities it passes through.

There are 267 open safety recommendations associated with the current most wanted list and the board is focused on implementing 46 of them within the next two years, U.S. NTSB officials said. The majority of the recommendations — roughly two-thirds — seek critical safety improvements by means other than regulation, they said.

“We at the NTSB can speak on these issues. We can testify by invitation to legislatures and to Congress, but we have no power of our own to act,” said NTSB Chairman Robert Sumwalt. “We are counting on industry, advocates and government to act on our recommendations.”

Industrial Absorbents Market to Exceed $4.7 Billion by 2023

According to the new market research report, the industrial absorbents market is expected to grow from USD 3.7 billion in 2018 to USD 4.7 billion by 2023, at a Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 5.1% during the forecast period.

The report, prepared by Research and Markets and entitled “Industrial Absorbents Market By Material Type (Natural Organic & Inorganic, Synthetic), Product (Pads, Rolls, Booms & Socks), Type (Universal, Oil-only, HAZMAT), End-use Industry (Oil & Gas, Chemical, Food Processing), and Region – Global Forecast to 2023“, states that the major factors driving the industrial absorbents market include growing environmental concerns and regulations regarding oil and chemical spills.

The synthetic segment is expected to be the fastest-growing material type segment in the industrial absorbents market. The industrial absorbents market by material type has been categorized into natural organic, natural inorganic, and synthetic. Synthetic industrial absorbents are capable of absorbing liquid up to 70 times of their weight, which makes them a highly adopted material for industrial applications. Synthetic absorbents have properties such as non-flammability and excellent water repellency, which makes them suitable for applications in oil-only and HAZMAT spill control products.

Booms and socks are ideal industrial absorbents products for spill control. Booms and socks are widely used for oil-based spill control in water environment. Booms have excellent water repelling properties and are best suited for water environments such as sea, lakes, and ponds, among others. Socks are flexible tubes which are used to control and contain spills on land environment and are ideal for quickly absorbing oil- or water-based liquid spills on land. In regions such as the Middle East & Africa and Europe, there are high occurrences of large spills in marine areas, which drives the growth of booms & socks segment in the industrial absorbents market.

Oil Absorbent Booms

Market Drivers

HAZMAT/chemical absorbent products are used to cleanup spills involving acids, bases, and other hazardous or unknown liquids as these spills can have harmful impacts on the environment and can be dangerous to the living beings present in the vicinity. HAZMAT/chemical absorbent products are designed to absorb the most aggressive acidic or caustic fluids and are majorly composed of synthetic absorbents. In addition, stringent regulations in regions such as North America and Europe on chemical discharge in to the environment have led to an increase in the demand for spill control products designed for chemicals. Therefore, this factor has fueled the adoption and application of HAZMAT/chemical absorbent products, which is driving the growth of the industrial absorbents market.

Chemicals are hazardous materials, and can cause severe harm to humans or environment if accidentally released or spilled in the environment. Chemical accidents usually occur during transportation of stored chemicals. Chemical manufacturers need to immediately respond to accidental spills that occur during manufacturing processes to minimize the impact of spills on the environment. Furthermore, regions such as North America and Europe have stringent norms with respect to chemicals and spill response. All these factors have fueled the growth of the industrial absorbents market in the chemical end-use industry.

Asian Pacific Market

Asia Pacific industrial absorbents market is expected to have the highest growth rate during the forecast period due to the rising awareness and pressure to reinforce strict environmental regulations for spill response & control and pollution caused by end-use industries. The industrial absorbents market in Asia Pacific is driven by the demand from countries such as China, Japan, India, and South Korea, owing to rapid industrialization and rising occurrences of small liquid spills across the end-use industries.

Key Market Players

The major manufacturers in the global industrial absorbents market are 3M Company (US), Brady Corporation (US), Decorus Europe Ltd. (UK), Johnson Matthey Plc (UK), Kimberly-Clark Professional (US), Meltblown Technologies Inc. (US), Monarch Green, Inc. (US), New Pig Corporation (US), and Oil-Dri Corporation of America (US).

Top Environmental Clean Up Projects throughout Canada

by David Nguyen, Staff Writer

1. The Randle Reef Contaminated Sediment Remediation Project – Hamilton, Ontario

Cost: $138.9 million

Contaminant: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs),
heavy metals

Approximately 60 hectares in size and containing 695 000 cubic metres of sediment contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals, the Randle Reef restoration project is three decades in the making. The pollution stems from various industries in the area including coal gasification, petroleum refining, steel making, municipal waste, sewage and overland drainage.1

Slated to be completed in three stages, the first stage involved the completion of a double steel sheet-piled walled engineered containment facility (ECF) around the most contaminated sediments, with stage 2 consists of dredging of the contaminated sediments into the ECF. Stage 3 will involve dewatering of the sediments in the ECF and treating the wastewater to discharge back into the lake, and the sediments will be capped with 60 cm of sand and silt enriched with organic carbon. This cap will both the isolate the contaminated sediments from the environment and form a foundation or future port structures. The ECF will be capped with layers of several material, including various sizes of aggregate, geo-textile and geo-grid, wickdrains, and asphalt and or concrete. This isolates the contaminants and provides a foundation for future port structures.

The project is expected to be completed by 2022 and cost $138.9 million. The Hamilton Port Authority will take over monitoring, maintenance, and development responsibilities of the facility for its expected 200-year life span. It is expected to provide $151 in economic benefits between job creation, business development, and tourism.

The Canada–United States Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement listed Hamilton harbour (which contains Randle Reef) as one of 43 Areas of Concern on the Great Lakes. Only 7 have been removed, 3 of which were in Canada.

2. Port Hope Area Initiative – Port
Hope, Ontario

Cost: $1.28 billion

Contaminant: low-level radioactive waste (LLRW),
industrial waste

The town of Port Hope, Ontario has about 1.2 million cubic metres of historic LLRW across various sites in the area. The soils and materials contain radium-226, uranium, arsenic, and other contaminants resulting from the refining process of radium and uranium between 1933 and 1988. Additional industrial waste containing metals, hydrocarbons, and dried sewage and sludge with copper and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) will also be contained at the new facility.

The material was spread across town as the tailings were given away for free to be used as fill material for backyards and building foundations. An estimated 800 properties are affected, but the low-level radiation poses little risk to humans. The Port Hope Area Initiative will cost $1.28 billion and will include monitoring before, during, and after the construction of a long term management waste facility (LTMWF).

The LTWMF will be an aboveground engineered storage mound on the site of an existing LLRW management facility to safely store and isolate the contaminated soil and material, as well as other industrial waste from the surrounding area. The existing waste will also be excavated and relocated to the engineered mound. Leachate collection system, monitoring wells, and sensors in the cover and baseliner will be used to evaluate the effectiveness of the storage mound, allowing for long term monitoring of the waste.

The
facility also contains a wastewater treatment plant that will treat surface
water and groundwater during construction of the facility, as well as the
leachate after the completion of the storage mound. The plant utilizes a two
stage process of chemical precipitation and clarification (stage 1) and reverse
osmosis (stage 2) to treat the water to meet the Canadian Nuclear Safety
Commission requirements for water discharged to Lake Ontario.

3. Marwell Tar Pit – Whitehorse, Yukon
Territory

Cost: $6.8 million

Contaminant: petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs), heavy
metals

This
$6.8 million project funded by the governments of Canada and Yukon will
remediate the Marwell Tar Pit in Whitehorse, which contain 27 000 cubic metres
of soil and groundwater contaminated with hydrocarbons, such as
benz[a]anthracene and heavy and light extractable petroleum hydrocarbons and
naphthalene, and heavy metals such as manganese. Some of the tar has also migrated
from the site.

Contamination
began during the Second World War, when a crude oil refinery operated for less
than one year before closing and being dismantled. The sludge from the bottom
of dismantled storage tanks (the “tar”) was deposited in a tank berm, and over time
other industries and businesses added other liquid waste to the tar pit. In the
1960s the pit was capped with gravel, and in 1998 declared a “Designated
Contaminated Site.”

The
project consists of three phases: preliminary activities, remedial activities,
and post-remedial activities. The preliminary phase consisted of consolidating
and reviewing existing information and completing addition site assessment.

The
second phase of remedial activities began in July 2018 and involves
implementing a remedial action plan. Contaminated soil segregated and heated through
thermal conduction, which vaporizes the contaminants, then the vapours are
destroyed by burning. Regular testing is done to ensure air quality standards
are met. The main emissions from the site are carbon dioxide and water vapour. Remediated
soil is used to backfill the areas of excavation. This phase is expected to be
completed in 2019-2020.

The
final phase will involve the monitoring of the site to demonstrate the
remediation work has met government standards. This phase is planned to last
four years. The project began in 2011 and is expected to be completed in
2020-2021.

4. Boat Harbour – Nova Scotia

Cost: approx.$133 million

Contaminant: PHCs, PAHs, heavy metals, dioxins and
furans

The provinces largest contaminated site, Boar Harbour, is the wastewater lagoon for the local pulp mill in Abercrombie Point, as well as the discharge point for a former chemical supplier in the area. Prior to 1967, Boat Harbour was a saltwater tidal estuary covering 142 hectares, but a dam built in 1972 separated Boat Harbour from the ocean, and it is now a freshwater lake due to the receiving treated wastewater from the mill since the 1967.

The
wastewater effluent contains contaminants including dioxins and furans, PAHs, PHCs,
and heavy metals such as cadmium, mercury, and zinc. In 2015, the government of
Nova Scotia passed The Boat Harbour Act, which ordered that Boat Harbour cease
as the discharge point for the pulp mill’s treated wastewater in 2020, which
allows time to build a new wastewater treatment facility and time to plan the
remediation of Boat Harbour.

The
estimated cost of the cleanup is $133 million, which does not include the cost
of the new treatment facility. The goal is to return the harbour to its
original state as a tidal estuary. The project is currently in the planning
stages and updates can be found at https://novascotia.ca/boatharbour/.

5. Faro Mine – Faro, Yukon

Cost: projected$450 million

Contaminant: waste rock leachate and tailings

Faro Mine was once the largest open-pit lead-zinc mine in the world, and now contains about 70 million tonnes of tailings and 320 million tonnes of waste rock, which can potentially leach heavy metals and acids into the environment. The mine covers 25 square kilometres, and is located near the town of Faro in south-central Yukon, on the traditional territory of three Kasha First Nations – the Ross River Dena Council, Liard First Nation and Kaska Dena Council. Downstream of the mine are the Selkirk First Nation.

The
Government of Canada funds the project, as well as leads the maintenance, site
monitoring, consultation, and remediation planning process. The Government of
Yukon, First Nations, the Town of Faro, and other stakeholders are also responsible
for the project and are consulted regularly to provide input.

The
entire project is expected to take about 40 years, with main construction activities
to be completed by 2022, followed by about 25 years of remediation. The
remediation project includes upgrading dams to ensure tailings stay in place,
re-sloping waste rock piles, installing engineered soil covers over the
tailings and waste rock, upgrading stream diversions, upgrading contaminant
water collection and treatment systems.

6. Sylvia Grinnell River Dump – Iqaluit,
Nunavut

Cost: $5.4 million

Contaminant: PHCs, polychlorinated biphenyls
(PCBs), pesticides

Transport Canada awarded a contract of over $5.4 million in 2017 for a cleanup of a historic dump along the mouth of Sylvia Grinnell River in Iqaluit, Nunavut. The dump contains metal debris from old vehicles and appliances, fuel barrels, and other toxic waste from a U.S. air base, and is a site for modern day rogue dumping for items like car batteries. This has resulted in petroleum hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides, and other hazardous substances being identified in the area.

The Iqaluit airfield was founded in Frobisher Bay by the U.S. military during World War 2 as a rest point for planes flying to Europe. During the Cold War, the bay was used as part of the Distant Early Warning (DEW) Line stations across the north to detect bombers from the Soviet Union. When the DEW was replaces by the North Warning System in the 1980s, these stations were abandoned and the contaminants and toxic waste left behind. Twenty-one of these stations were remediated by the U.S. Department of National Defence at a cost of about $575 in 2014.

The Sylvia Grinnell River remediation project is part of the Federal government’s responsibility to remediate land around the airfield that was transferred to the Government of Nunavut in the 1990s.The contract was awarded in August 2017 and was completed in October. The remaining nontoxic is sealed in a new landfill and will be monitored until 2020.

7. Greenwich-Mohawk Brownfield – Brantford,
Ontario

Cost: $40.78 million

Contaminant: PHC, PAC, heavy metals, vinyl
chloride

The
City of Brantford have completed a cleanup project of 148 000 cubic metres of
contaminated soil at the Greenwich-Mohawk brownfield site. The area was historically
the location of various farming manufacturing industries that shut down,
leaving behind contaminants like PHC, PAC, heavy metals like lead, xylene, and
vinyl chloride.

Cleanup
began in 2015, and consisted coarse grain screening, skimming, air sparging,
and recycling of 120 000 litres of oil from the groundwater, using biopiles to
treat contaminated soil onsite with 73% of it being reused and the rest
requiring off site disposal.

Barriers
were also installed to prevent future contamination from an adjacent rail line
property, as well as to contain heavy-end hydrocarbons discovered during the
cleanup that could not be removed due to the release odorous vapours throughout
the neighbourhood. The 20 hectare site took two years to clean and costed only
$40.78 million of the allocated $42.8 million between the all levels of
government, as well as the Federation of Canadian Municipalities Green
Municipal Fund.

8. Rock Bay Remediation Project –
Victoria, British Columbia

Cost: $60 million

Contaminant: PAHs, hydrocarbons, metals

Located near downtown Victoria and within the traditional territories of the Esquimalt Nation and Songhees Nation, the project entailed remediating 1.73 hectares of contaminated upland soils and 2.02 hectares of contaminated harbour sediments. The site was the location of a former coal gasification facility from the 1860s to the 1950s, producing waste products like coal tar (containing PAHs), metals, and other hydrocarbons, which have impacted both the sediments and groundwater at the site.

Remediation occurred in three stages. From 2004 to 2006, the first two stages involving the remediation of 50 300 tonnes of hazardous waste soils, 74 100 tonnes of non-hazardous waste soils, and 78 500 tonnes of contaminated soils above commercial land use levels. In 2009, 250 tonnes of hazardous waste were dredged from two sediment hotspots at the head of Rock Bay. About 7 million litres of hydrocarbon and metal impacted groundwater have been treated or disposed of, and an onsite wastewater treatment plant was used to return treated wastewater to the harbour.

Construction
for the final stage occurred between 2014 to 2016 and involved:

  • installing
    shoring along the property boundaries to remove up to 8 metres deep of
    contaminated soils,
  • installing
    a temporary coffer dams
  • draining
    the bay to remove the sediments in dry conditions, and
  • temporary
    diverting two storm water outfalls around the work area.

Stage
three removed 78 000 tonnes of contaminated and 15 000 tonnes of
non-contaminated sediment that were disposed of/ destroyed at offsite
facilities.

Final post-remediation monitoring was completed in January 2017, with post-construction monitoring for 5 years required as part of the habitat restoration plan to ensure the marine habitat is functioning properly and a portion of the site will be sold to the Esquimalt Nation and Songhees Nation.

9. Bushell Public Port Facility
Remediation Project – Black Bay (Lake Athabasca), Saskatchewan

Cost: $2 million

Contaminant: Bunker C fuel oil

 Built in 1951 and operated until the mid-1980s, the Bushell Public Port Facility consist of two lots covering 3.1 hectares with both upland and water lots. The facility supplied goods and services to the local mines, and petroleum products to the local communities of Bushell and Uranium City. Historical activities like unloading, storing, and loading fuel oil, as well as a large spill in the 1980s resulted in the contaminated soil, blast rock, and bedrock in Black Bay that have also extended beyond the waterlot boundaries.

The remediation work occurred between 2005 to 2007, and involved excavation of soil and blast rock, as well as blasting and removing bedrock where oil had entered through cracks and fissures.

Initial
remediation plans were to crush and treat the contaminated material by low
temperature thermal desorption, which incinerates the materials to burn off the
oil residue. However, opportunities for sustainable reuse of the contaminated
material came in the use of the contaminated crush rock for resurfacing of the
Uranium City Airport. This costed $1.75 million less than the incineration
plan, and saved the airport project nearly 1 million litres of diesel fuel. The
crush was also used by the Saskatchewan Research Council in the reclamation of
the Cold War Legacy Uranium Mine and Mill Sites. A long term monitoring event
is planned for 2018.

10. Thunder Bay North Harbour –
Thunder Bay, Ontario

Cost: estimated at upwards to $50 million

Contaminant: Paper sludge containing mercury and other contaminants

 While all of the projects discussed so far have either been completed or are currently in progress, in Thunder Bay, the plans to clean up the 400 000 cubic metres of mercury contaminated pulp and fibre have been stalled since 2014 due to no organization or government designated to spearhead the cleanup.

While
the water lot is owned by Transport Canada, administration of the site is the
responsibility of the Thunder Bay Port Authority, and while Transport Canada
has told CBC that leading the cleanup is up to the port, the port authority was
informed by Transport Canada that the authority should only act in an advisory
role. Environmental Canada has participated in efforts to advance the planning
of the remediation work, but is also not taking the lead in the project either.
Further complications are that the industries responsible for the pollution no
longer exist.

Industrial activities over 90 years have resulted in the mercury contamination, which range in concentrations between 2 to 11 ppm on surface sediments to 21 ppm at depth. The thickness ranges from 40 to 380 centimetres and is about 22 hectares in size. Suggested solutions in 2014 include dredging the sediment and transferring it to the Mission Bay Confined Disposal Facility, capping it, or building a new containment structure. As of October 2018, a steering committee lead by Environment Canada, Transport Canada, Ontario’s environmental ministry and the Thunder Bay Port Authority, along with local government, Indigenous groups, and other stakeholders met to evaluate the remediation options, as well as work out who will lead the remediation.

Observations from a CBRNe training consolidation exercise

by Steven Pike , Argon Electronics

While accidental or deliberate chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and explosives (CBRNe) incidents are still widely considered to be fairly low probability events, their impact on citizens, society and infrastructure can be immense.

If and when they do occur, the speed of response has been shown to be absolutely critical when it comes to taking charge of the scene, avoiding further contamination and saving lives.

Research published by the ORCHIDS (Optimisation Through Research of Chemical Incident Contamination Systems) project provides quantitative evidence of the recommended techniques for handling potential contaminants or scenarios that will require emergency mass casualty decontamination.

Amongst its findings are:

  • The importance of swift evacuation, disrobing and decontamination – ideally within 15 minutes
  • Ensuring the safety of first responders by the carrying out of ongoing hazard assessments throughout the incident
  • The importance of clear communication to casualties or bystanders throughout the response in order to foster trust and confidence in the activities
  • Effective situation reporting from the scene to enable all agencies to retain shared situational awareness

The knowledge, skills and experience of those charged with CBRNe instruction is paramount in ensuring that the best possible training is provided to those emergency response personnel tasked with responding to hazardous incidents.

But finding innovative ways to create realistic CBRNe training – in a manner that accurately depicts the reality of modern threats, and that replicates the array of sophisticated detector equipment available – can present a very real challenge for instructors.

One of the biggest obstacles is undoubtedly time. Training exercises, by necessity, often need to take place within tight timeframes. While an actual search and survey mission may take many hours to complete, an exercise may need to be truncated to a matter of minutes. 

Having had the opportunity to observe a wide variety of CBRNe scenarios and consolidation exercises over the years, a few key factors have become especially apparent when it comes to the efficacy both of the training and the training environment.

The value of hands-on experience

Classroom learning undoubtedly has its place, but providing trainees with the opportunity to handle actual detector equipment, or replica simulator detectors, in life-like scenarios is key to their understanding.

And, as we have discussed in previous blog posts on the subject, the more realistic the scenario the better the outcomes both for the trainee and the instructor.

Having confidence in your equipment

In the early stages of an incident it may sometimes be difficult for a first responder to establish that a CBRNe incident has even occurred.

In some cases there may be visual indicators, odd smells or tastes, or obvious physical symptoms which provide a clue to the presence of a threat.

But while hazardous chemical releases are often (but not always) accompanied by a more rapid onset of symptoms, radiological or biological releases may not become apparent for minutes or even hours after the initial event.

These factors mean it is all the more important that trainees have confidence in their personal protective equipment (PPE) which can be bought from sites like PPE Supplies Direct, who can supply the correct PPE for work, confidence in the use of their detectors and confidence in the readings that they obtain.

With that said, participants don’t always get to spend a huge amount of time handling the equipment, which means ease of use and simplicity of operation are extremely important factors.

Managing the challenges of PPE

Something that becomes immediately apparent once trainees don their PPE equipment is just how much their visual, verbal, auditory and manual capacity is affected.

The sense of psychological isolation, anxiety and/or feelings of claustrophobia are also very real issues. And it is up to the trainee to be able to manage these physical and psychological challenges, whilst staying focused on the task at hand and ensuring they deliver accurate information to those up the chain of command.

Having access to, experience of (and confidence in) their detector equipment is a critical element of effective CBRNe response.

Even when working within tight time constraints, an observance of methodical scene management will be critical to ensuring that emergency responders are able to work in a controlled environment, that risk to themselves and the public is minimized, and that any potential crime scene is protected.

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About the Author

Steven Pike is the Founder and Managing Director of Argon Electronics, a leader in the development and manufacture of Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) and hazardous material (HazMat) detector simulators.
He is interested in liaising with CBRN professionals and detector manufacturers to develop training simulators as well as CBRN trainers and exercise planners to enhance their capability and improve the quality of CBRN and Hazmat training.