Posts

Quebec Dry Cleaner fined $77,000 for environmental offences

The owner of a Quebec-based dry cleaning company (9042-6560 Québec Inc., operating as Net Escompte-Serge Daoust) in Laval, was recently sentenced in a Quebec court and ordered to pay a penalty of $77,000. He pleaded guilty to four counts of violating the Tetrachloroethylene (Use in Dry Cleaning and Reporting Requirements) Regulations under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999. He also pleaded guilty to failing to comply with an environmental protection compliance order issued by an enforcement officer under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999. The entire amount of the fine will be directed to the Government of Canada’s Environmental Damages Fund.

In addition to the fine, the court made an order under subsection 291(1) of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999. The order stipulates that the owner must:

  • refrain from engaging in any activity that may result in the continuation or repetition of the offence;
  • publish, within six months after the judgment, an article on the facts relating to the offence in Fabricare Canadamagazine and provide proof of publication to Environment and Climate Change Canada;
  • display the magazine article in the window of his business for a period of 12 months following publication;
  • complete Seneca College’s Dry Cleaners Environmental Management Training Course within 18 months after the judgment and provide proof of successful completion to Environment and Climate Change Canada;
  • design and implement training for his employees, develop a safe procedure for using and handling tetrachloroethylene, and provide Environment and Climate Change Canada with a copy of the procedure as well as the date and names of the employees trained as soon as possible; and
  • within two months after the judgment, bring into compliance the dry cleaning machine used in the offences committed under the Tetrachloroethylene (Use in Dry Cleaning and Reporting) Regulations and the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999, unless he decides to dispose of it voluntarily. Environment and Climate Change Canada shall be informed in advance of the persons selected to conduct the inspection and a copy of the inspection report shall be submitted to them. If necessary, corrections shall be made and confirmation sent to the Department.

Tetrachlorethylene, also called PERC, is a solvent whose use is widespread, especially in dry cleaning. The liquid has an ethereal odor, is colorless, volatile and almost non-flammable. It is designated as a toxic substance under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 since it can enter the environment through the atmosphere, damage plants and end up in groundwater.

The charges were laid after an inspection of the company’s premises in October 2016, during which Environment and Climate Change Canada enforcement officers found violations of the Tetrachloroethylene (Use in Dry Cleaning and Reporting) Regulations. The offences identified involve the storage and disposal of tetrachloroethylene waste and the maintenance, conservation and production of records in relation to dry cleaning activities. To remedy these offences, a compliance order was issued. However, the owner did not comply with it.

Chemical and Biological Remediation Tetrachloroethene – Case Study

Tetrachloroethene is the systematic name for tetrachloroethylene, or perchloroethylene (“perc” or “PERC”), and many other names.  It is a manufactured chemical that is widely used in the dry-cleaning of fabrics, including clothes. It is also used for degreasing metal parts and in manufacturing other chemicals. Tetrachloroethene is found in consumer products, including some paint and spot removers, water repellents, brake and wood cleaners, glues, and suede protectors.

Tetrachloroethene is a common soil contaminant. With a specific gravity greater than 1, tetrachloroethylene will be present as a dense nonaqueous phase liquid(DNAPL) if sufficient quantities are released. Because of its mobility in groundwater, its toxicity at low levels, and its density (which causes it to sink below the water table), cleanup activities are more difficult than for oil spills (which has a specific gravity less than 1).

In the case study, researchers from Manchester Geomicro, a geo-microbiology and molecular environmental science research group affiliated with the University of Manchester, used combined chemical and microbiological contaminant degradation processes to remediate tetrachloroethene at a contaminated site in Germany.

In the study, the researchers used Carbo-Iron®, an applied composite material consisting of colloidal activated carbon and embedded nanoscale zero valent iron (ZVI). In a recent long term study of a field site in Germany, it was injected into an aquifer contaminated with tetrachloroethene (PCE). Carbo-Iron® particles accumulated the pollutants and promoted their reductive dechlorination via a combination of chemical and microbial degradation processes.

Schematic illustrating Carbo-Iron® particle structure and key chemical and microbial dechlorination pathways

The presence of the dominant degradation products ethene and ethane in monitoring wells over the duration of the study indicates the extended life-time of ZVI’s chemical activity in the composite particles. However, the identification of the partial dechlorination product cis-dichlorethene (cis-DCE) at depths between 12.5m and 25m below ground level one year into the study, suggested additional microbially mediated degradation processes were also involved.

Hydrogen produced by the aqueous corrosion of ZVI contributed to a decrease in the redox potential of the groundwater up to 190 days promoting organo-halide reducing conditions that lasted for months after. The long lasting reducing effect of Carbo-Iron® is crucial to efficiently supporting microbial dehalogenation, because growth and activity of these microbes occurs relatively slowly under environmental conditions. Detection of increased levels of cis-DCE in the presence of various organohalide reducing bacteria supported the hypothesis that Carbo-Iron® was able to support microbial dechlorination pathways. Despite the emergence of cis-DCE, it did not accumulate, pointing to the presence of an additional microbial degradation step.

The results of state-of-the-art compound specific isotope analysis in combination with pyrosequencing suggested the oxidative degradation of cis-DCE by microorganism related to Polaromonas sp. Strain JS666. Consequently, the formation of carcinogenic degradation intermediate vinyl chloride was avoided due to the sequential reduction and oxidation processes. Overall, the moderate and slow change of environmental conditions mediated by Carbo-Iron® not only supported organohalide-respiring bacteria, but also created the basis for a subsequent microbial oxidation step.

This study, published in Science of the Total Environment (Vogel et al. 2018, vol. 628-629, 1027-1036) illustrates how microbes and nanomaterials can work in combination for targeted remediation. The work was led by collaborators (Katrin Mackenzie and Maria Vogel) at the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research in Leipzig, Germany, and adds to a growing portfolio of research highlighting the potential of Carbo-Iron® as an in situ treatment for contaminated groundwater.

 

In-Situ Remediation of Tetrachloroethylene and its Intermediates in Groundwater

Researchers from Tianjin University in China recently released results from a study that showed the results of the use of an anaerobic/aerobic permeable reactive barrier at removing tetrachloroethylene (also known as “perc”) and its intermediates in groundwater.

The anaerobic/aerobic permeable reactive barrier (PRB) system that was tested consisted of four different functional layers and was designed to remediate PCE-contaminated groundwater.  The first (oxygen capture) layer maintained the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration at <1.35 mg/L in influent supplied to the second (anaerobic) layer.  The third (oxygen-releasing) layer maintained DO concentration at >11.3 mg/L within influent supplied to the fourth (aerobic) layer.  Results show that 99% of PCE was removed, mostly within the second (anaerobic) layer.  The toxic by-products TCE, DCE, and VC were further degraded by 98, 90, and 92%, respectively, in layer 4 (aerobic). The anaerobic/aerobic PRB thus could control both PCE and its degradation by-products.

Photo Credit: US EPA

Tetrachloroethylene is a manufactured chemical that is widely used for dry cleaning of fabrics and for metal-degreasing. It is also used to make other chemicals and is used in some consumer products.

Tetrachloroethylene is present in the subsurface at contaminated sites, often as a result of its inappropriate disposal and release from dry-cleaning and degreasing facilities or landfills.